Female Pirates to Know

Oct 27
Posted by leafworks Filed in Life on the Sea, Pirates

cross-posted from 9 Female Pirates you need to know: http://mentalfloss.com/article/58889/9-female-pirates-you-should-know

9 Female Pirates You Should Know

   by Kristy Puchko
IMAGE CREDIT:
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

When you think of pirates, you’re likely picturing bearded buccaneers or peg-legged scalawags with names like Blackbeard, Barbarossa, and Calico Jack. While most pirates were men, there were women in these ranks of raiders who were just as merciless, notorious, and feared. Spanning the globe and centuries, we introduce you to the infamous she-pirates of the seven seas.

1. ANNE BONNY

 

Born Anne Cormac in 1698, this Irish lass with luscious red locks and a dangerous temper became an icon of The Golden Age of Piracy (1650s-1730s) after marrying small-time pirate James Bonny. Anne’s respectable father disowned her over the marriage, so she and her new husband moved to a portion of the Bahamas nicknamed the Pirates Republic, a sanctuary of sorts for scalawags. But the Bonnys were not happily married for long.

They divorced, and she took up with Calico Jack Rackham, first as his lover, then as his first mate of the ship Revenge. In October of 1720, she and the rest of Rackham’s crew were captured despite Bonny and her bosom buddy Mary Read’s valiant attempts to fight off the advancing English forces. Bonny blamed Rackham for their capture. Her last words to him in prison are recorded as, “Sorry to see you there, but if you’d fought like a man, you would not have been hang’d like a Dog.”

He was hanged, but Bonny’s pregnancy earned her a stay of execution. However, no historical record of her death sentence was found. Some speculate that her affluent father paid a handsome price to have her set free.

2. MARY READ

 

Best mate of Anne Bonny was Mary Read, an Englishwoman born the bastard of a sea captain’s widow. While Bonny was said to wear clothes that identified her as female, Read had a long history of masquerading as male that dates back to her youth. Her mother would dress Read as her late older brother to wheedle money from the dead boy’s paternal grandmother. Years later, she joined the British military as Mark Read. She found love with a Flemish soldier, but upon his untimely death Read headed to the West Indies. As fate would have it, her ship was taken by pirates, who pushed her to join their ranks.

Cross-dressing as a man, Read set sail with Anne Bonny and Calico Jack on the Revenge in 1720. Some stories suggest that only Bonny and Jack knew of Read’s womanhood, and only because the latter grew jealous when the former flirted with “Mark.” Later that year, a third in their crew would learn Read’s secret, and she claimed him as her husband.

When the Revenge was captured by pirate hunter Captain Jonathan Barnet, Read joined Bonny in “pleading the belly.” But pregnancy from her unnamed husband would not save her. She died on April 28th 1721, from a violent fever in her prison cell. No record is made of the burial of a baby. Some suspect Read and the infant died during childbirth.

3. SADIE THE GOAT

 

American pirate of the 19th century, Sadie Farrell earned her unusual nickname for her violent modus operandi. On the streets of New York City, Sadie won a reputation as a merciless mugger by head-butting her victims. It’s said that Sadie was chased out of Manhattan when a fellow female tough, Gallus Mag, brawled with her, biting off Sadie’s ear.

To flee the city, she wrangled a new gang to steal a sloop in the spring of 1869. With a Jolly Roger flapping above them, Sadie and her crew became pirates that swept the Hudson and Harlem Rivers for booty. She’d lead raids on the farmhouses and posh mansions that dotted the river’s side, occasionally kidnapping folks for ransom. By the end of summer these raids became too risky as the farmers took to firing upon the sloop as it drew near. So, Sadie the Goat returned to the mainland, where she made peace with Gallus Mag, who returned to Sadie her lost ear which had been pickled for posterity.

Known now as “Queen of the Waterfront,” Sadie took her dismembered ear and placed it in a locket, which she wore around her neck for the rest of her days.

4. QUEEN TEUTA OF ILLYRIA

 

One the earliest recorded female pirates was actually a pirate queen. Once her husband Agron died in 231 BC, Teuta of Illyria became queen regent, as her stepson Pinnes was too young to rule. During her four years of reign over the Ardiaei tribe of what is now the Western Balkans, Teuta encouraged piracy as a means of fighting back against Illyria’s domineering neighbors. This not only meant the plundering of Roman ships, but also the capturing of Dyrrachium and Phoenice. Her pirates spread out from the Adriatic Sea into the Ionian Sea, terrorizing the trade route of Greece and Italy. While Teuta’s seafaring tribesman brought her kingdom great wealth and power, they also won her a great enemy.

Romans sent representatives to Teuta for a diplomatic meeting. She scoffed at their pleas, insisting that her tribe sees piracy as a part of lawful trade. From there diplomacy went out the window. It’s unknown what the Roman reps said next. But one ambassador was killed, while the other was imprisoned. So began a war between Rome and Illyria that lasted from 229 BC to 227 BC, when Teuta was forced to surrender on terms that cut down her power and forced her tribe to pay annual tribute to Rome.

Though she continued to rail against Roman rule, she lost her throne. The rest of her life was lost to history.

5. BACK FROM THE DEAD RED

Born the daughter of a Frenchman and a Haitian woman in 17th century, Jacquotte Delahayestole untold fortunes and captured the imaginations of many seafaring storytellers. This buccaneer lost her mother to childbirth and her brother was mentally handicapped, and once her father was murdered Delahaye was left alone to care for him. Legend has it that piracy is how she managed to do just that.

Her nickname comes from the most popular aspect of her story, which claims this red-haired pirate faked her own death to escape the government forces that were closing in on her in the 1660s. From there, she took up a new identity, living for several years as a man. Finally, when the heat died down she resurfaced with her catchy new moniker Back From the Dead Red.

6. THE LIONESS OF BRITTANY

Jeanne de Clisson’s tale is one of tragedy, revenge and the showmanship. As the wife of Olivier III de Clisson, Jeanne was a happily married mother of five, and a lady of Brittany, France. But when land wars between England and France led to her husband being charged with treason and punished with decapitation, she swore revenge on the France’s King Philip VI.

The widowed de Clisson sold all of her land to buy three warships, which she dubbed her Black Fleet. These were painted black, draped with blood red sails, and crewed with merciless privateers. From 1343-1356, the Lioness of Brittany sailed the English Channel, capturing the French King’s ships, cutting down his crew, and beheading with an axe any aristocrat who had the misfortune to be onboard. Remarkably, despite all her theft and bloodshed, de Clisson retired quietly. She even remarried, settling down with English lieutenant Sir Walter Bentley.

Believed to have died in 1359, some say she has since returned to de Clisson Castle in Brittany, where her grey ghost walks the halls.

7. ANNE DIEU-LE-VEUT

Also from Brittany was this French woman, whose name translates to Anne God-Wants, a title said to speak to her tenacious nature. She came to the Caribbean island of Tortuga in the late 1660s or early 1670s. From there she suffered some rocky years that made her a widow twice over, as well as a mother of two. But as fate would have it, her second husband was killed by the man who’d become her third. Dieu-le-Veut insisted on a duel with Laurens de Graaf, to avenge her late mate. The Dutch buccaneer was so taken by her courage that he refused to fight her, and instead offered her his hand. They married on July 28th, 1693, and had two more children.

Dieu-le-Veut set sail with de Graaf, which was considered odd as many seamen considered women on ships bad luck. Yet Dieu-le-Veut and de Graaf’s relationship has been compared to that of Anne Bonny and Calico Jack, in that they were inseparable partners who sneered at superstition. Like many pirates, their story is one that becomes fractured in its final chapter.

Dieu-le-Veut’s legend has this brassy broad taking over as captain when de Graaf was struck down by a cannonball blast. Others suggest that the couple fled to Mississippi around 1698, where they may or may not have continued to pirate. And still other tales claim that Dieu-le-Veut’s pugnacious spirit lived on in her daughter, who was said to raise eyebrows in Haiti by demanding a duel with a man.

8. SAYYIDA AL HURRA

 

A contemporary and ally of the Turkish pirate Barbarossa, Sayyida al-Hurra was a pirate queen and was the last woman awarded the title of al Hurra (Queen), following the death of her husband who had ruled Tétouan, Morocco. In fact, her real name is unknown. Sayyida al Hurra is a title that translates to “noble lady who is free and independent; the woman sovereign who bows to no superior authority.”

She ruled from 1515-1542, controlling the western Mediterranean Sea with her pirate fleet while Barbarossa roamed the eastern side. Al Hurra’s inspiration to take to piracy came from a wish for revenge against the “Christian enemy” she felt had wronged her years before when Catholic monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella ran her Muslim family out of Granada. She was a feared figure for the Spanish and Portuguese, whose historical records are peppered with paperwork involving reports about her exploits and ransoms.

At the height of her power, al-Hurra remarried to the king of Morocco, yet refused to give up her seat of power in Tétouan. But in 1542, she was given no choice when her son-in-law overthrew her. The Yemen Times weighs in on her final chapter, writing, “She was stripped of her property and power and her subsequent fate is unknown.”

9. CHING SHIH

 

One of the most feared pirates of all time was this menace of the China Sea. Born in humble beginnings as Shi Xiang Gu, she was working as a prostitute when pirates captured her. In 1801, she married the notorious Chinese pirate Zheng Yi (a.k.a. Cheng I), who came from a long line of fearsome thieves. Yi’s Red Flag Fleet was immense, made up of 300 ships and somewhere between 20,000 and 40,000 men. But all this was at risk of falling apart when he died on November 16th, 1807.

Gu became known as Ching Shih, which meant widow of Zheng. She was quick to seek the backing of her in-laws in her bid for leadership of the Red Flag Fleet. To help her maintain the day-to-day concerns of a sprawling pirate army, Ching Shih enlisted the help of Chang Pao, a fisherman’s son who had been adopted by Yi. They proved a great team, and by 1810 the Red Fleet is said to have grown to 1800 sailing vessels and 80,000 crew members. To manage so many, Ching Shih essentially set up her own government to establish laws and even taxes. Yet she was no soft touch. Breaking her laws lead to decapitation. She was revered and feared as far away as Great Britain.

In 1810, Ching Shih and her fleet considered getting out of the piracy business when amnesty was offered. However, to get it a pirate must bend the knee before government officials. This was considered a sign of shameful surrender, but Ching Shih found a clever way to compromise. With Pao and 17 women and children in tow, she marched into the office of official Zhang Bai Ling, and asked that he marry her and her first mate. He did, and the newlyweds knelt to thank him. Ching Shih retired with her dignity and all her ill-gotten loot, which some have suggested makes her the most successful pirate of all time. She lived to the age of 69.

September 19, 2014 – 10:00am 

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Pirate Relief Shoppe within The Leaf and Dragon

Jun 16
Posted by leafworks Filed in Events, Projects, Shoppes

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Join us at our new storefront at 33 North First Street, Suite 1, Ashland, Oregon 97520 as we embark upon our newest phenomena as

The Leaf and Dragon

The combined efforts of The Tree Leaves Oracle (the host of Pirate Relief) and The Jelling Dragon bringing together their hordes of treasures from their travels around the world specializing in Viking, Pirates, Faeries, Fantasy, Folklore, and Medieval Re-enactments, supplies, gifts, clothing, jewelry, herbs, oils, candles, art, crafts, and sundries.

Now open – Mondays through Saturdays, 10 AM until 5 PM excluding holidays and Faerie festivals we attend.

Web shopping carts open 24/7. Toll free: 1-800-605-9705.

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6 Months in a Leaky Boat

Mar 8
Posted by leafworks Filed in bands

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Cork Harbour

Dec 26
Posted by leafworks Filed in Ports

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Cork Harbour
* www.corkharbour.ie * Cork, Ireland (Eire) *

Spectacular views of Cork harbour abound from atop Curraghbinny Hill overlooking the waters. It is one of the world’s finest natural harbour’s with many river estuaries feeding it. The Rivers Douglas, Owenacurra, and Lee drain within and allow some portage for ships to communities along their banks to the harbour. The Harbour itself is a Special Protected Area because of the avian species that inhabit its banks. More historically, it is known for being the last port of call for the “The Titanic“. It is also home to three military installations: the historic jail site “Spike Island”, Fort Carlisle, and Fort Camden. The oldest yacht club in the world, known as the RCYC, as “The Water Club of the Harbour of Cork” was founded in 1720 C.E. The Irish Maritime and Energy Resource Cluster (IMERC) that studies ocean energy operates from the harbour, and along its banks are located eight out of the ten world’s largest pharmaceutical companies.

A natural harbour and river estuary at the mouth of the River Lee. Based on its navigation area, it is the second largest natural harbour in the world … the first being Port Jackson in Sydney, Australia. Cork City, the largest city at its bank, is slightly upstream on the River Lee from the Harbour while its suburbs of Black Rock, Mahon, Passage West, Rochester, and Douglas are much closer to the harbour. Smaller towns around the lower harbour area are Monkstown, Ringaskiddy, Ballinacurra, Midleton, Passage West, Crosshaven, Raffeen, Great Island, Whitegate, Aghada, and Cobh. There are numerous islands in the harbour such as Harper Island, Hop Island, Haulbowline Island, Great island, Fota Island, Little Island, Spike Island, Rocky Island, Brown Island, Weir Island, Brick Island, Corkbeg Island, and Hop Island. Cork Harbour had a number of fortifications (such as Fort Charles) built around it during the 17th century C.E. to protect essentially Cork City. Haulbowline installed fortifications during the 18th century in order to protect anchorage in Cobh. When America was gaining its independence, Cork Harbour built forts at Fort Carlisle and Fort Camden. The harbour didn’t have too much military importance until the Napoleonic Wars took place one naval headquarters were transferred here becoming an important anchorage to guard the English Channel and maintain blockades of France. Fortifications continued to be developed thru the 19th century. Fort Templebreedy was built just to the south of Fort Camden beginning of the 20th century. Once Irish Independence was won, Cork Harbour was included with Lough Swilly and Berehaven in a list of Naval British sites that would remain under control of the Royal Navy even though the Haulbowline Island naval dockyard was given to the Irish in 1923. With Irish Independence however, controlling and maintaining the Cork harbour became a difficult operation. It became a low Priority and disadvantage to keep for the English, so in 1938 the British Government handed them over to Ireland unconditionally. At this point, Ireland ceased using most of the military installations for military purposes as there was no need for them. Fort Carlisle was renamed Fort Davis and used by the Defence Forces for FIBUA training. Fort Camden was renamed Fort Meagher and is currently being renovated by local volunteers and enthusiasts as a tourist attraction. Fort Westmoreland was renamed Fort Mitchell Spike Island Prison and is also being used as a tourist attraction. Haulbowline Island’s fortifications are now the headquarters of the Irish Naval Service.

Today the Harbour is one of the most important industrial areas located in Ireland where shipbuilding, steel-making, and fertilizer manufacture took place even though today they are on the down-climb and replaced by the pharmaceutical industry. Here firms like Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, Janssen Pharmaceutica, and others are conducting major business. They however too have been affected by the economic crisis and the 100+ pharmaceutical companies in the area have been affected during recent years. Transport through the harbour include import and export of oil, livestock, dairy, pharmaceuticals, grain, ore, cars, and other merchandise. It is also a major tourist port with numerous cruise ships and ferries coming to port here.

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Glenlee

Nov 9
Posted by leafworks Filed in Ships

Galateaantiguocartagena0fs-wikipediacommons
Wikipedia Commons: public domain because its copyright has expired.

Glenlee

The Glenlee was a three-masted bald headed steel-hulled Barque ship. It was first launched on December 3, 1896. Today she stands as a museum ship on Pointhouse Quay in Glasgow, Scotland. It is part of the Riverside Museum. She was built in 1896 at the Anderson Rodger & Company shipyard in Glasgow for Glen-line Glasgow shipping company / Archibald Sterling & Co. Ltd. The Glenlee has a hull length of 245 ft, a beam of 37.5 ft, and a depth of 22.5 ft. Her full length is 282 feet. Rigged with only double topallant sails double top sails over, she was never equip with royal sails, all in order to save in costs. The square sails were a little wider than the sails of a standard rigging to gain sail area for more propulsion. When the ship was launched in 1896 for her maiden voyage, as a ballast to Liverpool then onwards to Portland, Oregon. She traded cargo for 23 years under “Red Ensign” to Cape Horn and Australia. She was renamed the “Clarastella” in 1919 when changing hands to the Italian Society di Navigazione”, registered in Genoa. She was repaired and equip with two auxiliary diesel engines in 1922. Later that year she changed hands as the “Galatea” to be used as a sail training ship. She went through a bunch of changes and improvements. A flying bridge was installed on the poop deck with a flying jib boom attached to the spike bowsprit. She went through more revisions and repairs in the 1981 while in her Spanish port of registry. Here underwater hull was re-plated, de-rigged down to a hull, and towed to Seville to be used as a floating museum, but winding up in dry storage forgotten. Others claim she was purposely sunk in the harbor by removing her bronze sea cock valve yet was later salvaged by the Spanish Navy. Whatever truth to her fate, she was scrapped. In 1990, British naval architect Dr. Sir John Brown found her and re-salvaged her by making her hull seaworthy returning to Glasgow months later from Seville. Original parts belonging to her were tracked down and re-incorporated into her body. A modern-day Franken-ship of sorts. She was renewed to her original “Cape Horn” status, painted gray with gun ports added. Except for the hull and masts though, a new ship essentially had to be re-built. All changes from the Spanish and previous owners were removed and she was made as close as possible to her original design. She was given back her original name of “Glenlee” by the Lord Provost of Glasgow on July 6, 1993 and recognized as part of the National Historic Fleet Core Collection. She became a museum ship and tourist attraction offering educational programs, events, exhibitions, and a venue for the West End festival.

800px-Glenlee_at_Riverside_Museum-wikipediacommons-publicdomain
Photo Wikipedia Commons – Public Domain

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This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike
3.0 Unported license. Wikipedia Commons.

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Gulf fisherman: “There is no life out there”

Oct 29
Posted by leafworks Filed in Environmentalism, Health and Diet, Life on the Sea, Seafood

Gulf fisherman: “There is no life out there”

By (cross-posted from Grist post at http://grist.org/news/gulf-fisherman-there-is-no-life-out-there/)

Fried oyster sandwich
jshyun
There are many ways of preparing oysters. BP has the recipe for destroying them.

If it’s true that oysters are aphrodisiacs, then BP has killed the mood.

Louisiana’s oyster season opened last week, but thanks to the mess that still lingers after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster, there aren’t many oysters around.

“We can’t find any production out there yet,” Brad Robin, a commercial fisherman and Louisiana Oyster Task Force member, told Al Jazeera. “There is no life out there.” Many of Louisiana’s oyster harvest areas are “dead or mostly dead,” he says.

 

In Mississippi, fishing boats that used to catch 30 sacks of oysters a day are returning to docks in the evenings with fewer than half a dozen sacks aboard.

It’s not just oysters. The entire fishing industry is being hit, with catches down and shrimp and shellfish being discovered with disgusting deformities. One seafood business owner told Al Jazeera that his revenue was down 85 percent compared with the period before the spill. From the article:

“I’ve seen a lot of change since the spill,” [Hernando Beach Seafood co-owner Kathy] Birren told Al Jazeera. “Our stone crab harvest has dropped off and not come back; the numbers are way lower. Typically you’ll see some good crabbing somewhere along the west coast of Florida, but this last year we’ve had problems everywhere.”

Birren said the problems are not just with the crabs. “We’ve also had our grouper fishing down since the spill,” she added. “We’ve seen fish with tar balls in their stomachs from as far down as the Florida Keys. We had a grouper with tar balls in its stomach last month. Overall, everything is down.”

According to Birren, many fishermen in her area are giving up. “People are dropping out of the fishing business, and selling out cheap because they have to. I’m in west-central Florida, but fishermen all the way down to Key West are struggling to make it. I look at my son’s future, as he’s just getting into the business, and we’re worried.”

Ecosystem recovery is a slow process. Ed Cake, an oceanographer and marine biologist, points out that oysters still have not returned to some of the areas affected by a 1979 oil well blowout in the Gulf.  He thinks recovery from the BP disaster will take decades.

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Niagara River

Oct 27
Posted by leafworks Filed in Rivers

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Niagara River

A massive river that flows between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie for approximately 35 miles in length. It is home to the famous “Niagara Falls” both on the U.S. and Canadian sides. It is dotted with falls, whirlpools, and rapids along its course. There are also several islands along the run of the river: The two largest and most popular are the Navy Island and the Grand Island. Other popular ones include Goat Island, Luna Island, and Squaw Island. The river forms the border between Ontario, Canada and New York, USA. Many legends amiss around the river, as does its name origin. An Iroquois belief is it was named after a branch of the Neutral Confederacy called the “Niagagarega” in the late 17th century. Others state it was named after the Iroquois village “Ongniaahra” or “point of land cut in two”. Today the river is dotted with, especially within the Falls area, hydroelectric power stations. The two most famous of which is the Sir Adam Beck Hydro-electric Power Station in Canada and the Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant in the U.S.A. It was America’s first waterway to harness large scale hydro-electricity. Ships coming down the Niagara River use the Welland Canal of the Saint Lawrence Seaway to bypass the Falls. The Falls drop over 325 feet along its gorge fallway. It has two tributaries – the Welland River and Tonawanda Creek which were adapted into Canals for ship traffic such as the Erie Canal and the Welland Canal. The first European exploits of the area begin in the 17th century with French explorer Father Louis Hennepin published in the 1698 “A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America”. Some of the first railways built in America were built along this river, including the inclined wooden tramway built by John Montresor in 1764 called “The Cradles” and “The Old Lewiston Incline”. The River has seen its share of battles and wars, including ones between Fort Niagara (U.S.) and Ft. George (Canada) during the French and Indian War, American Revolution, Battle of Queenston Heights, and War of 1812. It was also very important during the American Civil War as a point where slaves crossed via the Underground Railway to Canada.

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Bronze Age Boat to be Launched into the Unknown

Mar 10
Posted by leafworks Filed in Experimental Archaeology, Parts of the Ship, Projects, Ships

cross posted from http://news.yahoo.com/press-call-first-experimental-archaeology-bronze-age-boat-171213120.html?goback=.gde_815227_member_217483070

 

Press Call:
A First for Experimental Archaeology -

Bronze Age Boat to be Launched into the Unknown

PRWeb – Thu, Feb 28, 2013

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   A unique project to recreate a 4000 year old boat will reach its dramatic conclusion on Wednesday 6 March as she is launched into the waters of Falmouth Harbour.

Falmouth, Cornwall (PRWEB UK) 25 February 2013

A first for experimental archaeology and a first for the National Maritime Museum Cornwall, the 50ft long 5 tonne prehistoric boat has been reconstructed as part of a collaborative project with the University of Exeter. A team of volunteers, led by shipwright Brian Cumby, have spent the last year building this one of a kind craft out of two massive oak logs using replica methods and tools, such as bronze headed axes.

Project director Prof Robert Van de Noort from the University of Exeter says: “The launch really is the moment of truth for this project. The very nature of an experiment means that we can’t know for sure what will happen. The boat has already given us a few surprises along the way, so the launch really is a leap into the unknown.”

Where:    The slipway between Falmouth Watersports Centre and the National Maritime Museum Cornwall in Falmouth
When:    Wednesday 6 March, 12 noon
Contact:    Michael Sweeney michaelsweeney(at)nmmc(dot)co.uk 01326 214558 or Tamsin Loveless tamsinloveless(at)nmmc(dot)co.uk 01326 214536

NB: The launch really is in the lap of the gods. High winds or torrential rain may force the launch to be delayed but if the gods are smiling on us it will be a sight to behold!

Note to Editor:
Find out more about this project on its dedicated Facebook page http://www.facebook.com/2012BCBronzeAgeBoat

And view time lapse footage of the entire project at http://www.youtube.com/falmouthvideos

Michael Sweeney
National Maritime Museum Cornwall
01326 214558
Email Information

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Traverse Board

Feb 23
Posted by leafworks Filed in Navigation and Measure

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Traverse board:
http://www.piraterelief.com/plank/?p=265

“Traverse board: The ship’s crew used a traverse board to plot the ship’s speed and course over four hours, which was the length of time of one watch shift. The speed and compass direction were plotted on the board at thirty-minute intervals. At the end of the watch, the information plotted on the traverse board was charted on paper. The information helped pilots with estimating the ship’s location” ~ Diorama/display in the Florida Museum of Natural History, Tallahassee, Florida. (Photo 091712-52.jpg) Traverse board: http://www.piraterelief.com/plank/?p=265.

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Maritime Navigation:

Feb 23
Posted by leafworks Filed in Life on the Sea, Navigation and Measure

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Navigation:

http://www.piraterelief.com/plank/?p=271

” Navigation: Ship pilots of the 1500s had few tools to help them navigate unfamiliar waters. Pilots had to be familiar with astronomy, maps, math, physics, and seamanship to direct the ship successfully. Shifting winds and currents, and sometimes hurricanes made navigation difficult.

The Cross Staff: was used to measure the angle between the horizon and the sun or North Star. Combining this information with data from astronomical tables provided the latitude.

The Hourglass: A sand clock or hourglass was used to measure time. It took thirty minutes for the sand to empty from the upper to the lower chamber. The clock was turned upside down to repeat the process.” ~ Diorama/display in the Florida Museum of Natural History, Tallahassee, Florida. (Photo 091712-53.jpg) Navigation: http://www.piraterelief.com/plank/?p=271.


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