Log line, Lead Line

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Navigation and Measure

THE LOG LINE, THE LEAD LINE

These were basic mechanisms for measuring anchor depth and the distance/speed a ship was travelling.

Lead Line or sounding line
This would be a length of thin rope with a plummet at its end (usually made of lead) that would be dropped into the water. This would be managed by the "leadsman" who would stand outboard on a channel and clear the ship as he "heaves the lead" by swinging it in a vertical circle over his head with a scope of 1-2 fathoms and upon precise momentum would let go for the lead to fall ahead and down to the bottom by the time the vessel reaches it, while letting the coil of rope free from his hands and then gathering slack as the ship comes ahead. When the lead is below him, he notes where the surface of the water is on the line and calls out the depth. This is also where "sounding" originated and is responsbile for various expressions in the English language such as "deep six" (sounding of 6 fathoms) and "Mark Twain" (for "by the mark, twain" meaning at the mark of two fathoms). Today this has been replaced by "echo sounding" by using sonar to measure ocean depth. Ultrasonic depth sounders provide accurate measure and profiles of the depth of the seabed today.

Log Line or Chip Log
A long line is a line of cordage, unspooled from a reel attached to a chip log that is drug behind a sailing ship. The cordage would have "knots" tield in it that would be used to measure distance and speed of the ship. This consisted of a wooden panel, weighted on one edge to float upright, and thus present substantial resistance to moving with respect the the water around it, attached to the line to a reel. This panel, or chip log, would be tossed overboard from the stern of the vessel while letting the line out. Knots in the line were placed at a distance of 47 feet and three inches (14.4018 meters), and as they passed through a sailor's fingers, while another sailor used a 30 second sand-glass to time the number of knots passing through the hands in 30 seconds. The log line lead to the derivation of the Old English word "knot" as a measure of speed and distance in nautical miles. A knot is equivalent to the speed of one nautical mile (ca. 1.852 km) per hour or approximately 1.151 miles per hour. This would be used to report and calculate the sailing master's "dead reckoning" and navigation. The method gives a value for the knot of 20.25 inches a second, or 1.85166 kilometers an hour. When the navigator wished to determine the speed of his vessel, a sailor dropped the log over the stern of the ship. The log would act as a drogue and remain roughly in place while the vessel moved away. The log-line was allowed to run out for a fixed period of time. The speed of the ship was indicated by the length of log-line passing over the stern during that time. This process was believed to have been invented by the Portugese Bartolomeu Crescencio who designed it at the end of the 15th century and was called the "Dutchman's Log".

Aboard the Quarter Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour would be found the Log line and lead line which were used to measure speed, distance, and anchor depth.


The Wheel or Helm, & Tiller, HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "log line", "lead line". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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cannons

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Defense, Parts of the Ship

CANNONS, SHIP:

Cannons are large pieces of artillery that uses projectiles and gunpowder. They can vary is size, range, caliber, mobility, rate/angle/type of fire, and firepower. Those on ships are usually a bit smaller than those used on land. The first use by Europeans was probably in Iberia in the 13th century. They have become very popular equipment aboard merchant, pirate, and military vessels during expeditions from the 16th-18th century.

Aboard the Upper Deck or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour are numerous cannons and swivel guns used to defend the ship from hostiles by firing small to large shots. The swivel guns could be moved to the longboat and mounted there when the crew went ashore. The HMS had 12, the HMB replica only has 10. As per cannons, there would be four-pounder cannons or guns that would fire 4 pound cannon balls for defense. The original HMS had 10, but six were thrown overboard when it ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef to help lighten the ship. These were recovered in the 1970's discovery of them and are what the HMB's cannons are based after. The HMB still ofter fire them when arriving or departing ports, using traditional black powder. They are also decorated with King George II crown and cipher weights, broad arrow and other markings.

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "cannons". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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swivel guns

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Defense, Parts of the Ship

SWIVEL GUNS:

Along the sides of tall sailing ships were often found small cannons called "swivel guns". These were very popular from the 16th-18th centuries of sailing history. They were mounted on a small swiveling stand or fork which allowed for a wide arc of movement. These are often also detachable and can move from the host main ship to the long boat. They typically measure around 3 feet in length (1 meter) with a bore diameter of 1 1/4 inch (3.5 cm). They would be used to shoot a wide variety of ammo, but atypically would fire grapeshot or small diameter shot such as small caliber round shot. Most of these guns are muzzle loaded. Breech loaded guns had a breech shaped like a beer mug, where the shooter would take the handle and insert into the body of the gun with the breech's opening facing forwards. Gunpowder, then projectiles were loaded into the breech, then aimed and fired. Very common on sailing ships as short-range anti-personnel ordinances rather than causing damage to opposing ships. Some swivel guns have been used to fire harpoons during whaling expeditions. The very first swivel gun known was from China in 1520. By 1560's, the swivel gun was introduced to Europe and Korea.

Aboard the Upper or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, along the sides of the ship are swivel guns used to defend the ship from hostiles by firing small shots. These could be moved to the longboat and mounted there when the crew went ashore. The HMS had 12, the HMB replica only has 10. In addition to the swivel guns, there would be four-pounder cannons or guns that would fire 4 pound cannon balls for defense. The original HMS had 10, but six were thrown overboard when it ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef to help lighten the ship. These were recovered in the 1970's discovery of them and are what the HMB's cannons are based after. The HMB still ofter fire them when arriving or departing ports, using traditional black powder. They are also decorated with King George II crown and cipher weights, broad arrow and other markings.

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "swivel guns". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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binnacle

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

THE BINNACLE:

The binnacle, usually near the steering wheel, is a shelf/cabinet used to hold the compass, lanterns, and half-hour glass. It is also usually a waist high case or stand on the deck of the ship, mounted in front of the captain or helmsman, upon or within which navigational instruments are placed for quick and easy reference. Early binnacles were made of timber and nails, but were found later to have caused magnetic deviations in compass readings. This was fixed by John Gray of Liverpool in 1854 by incorporating adjustable correcting magnets on screws or rack and pinions.

Aboard the Quarter Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, near the steering Wheel is the binnacle. This would also have been located near the hutch on the original HMS that would have been where the poultry would have been kept in front of the wheel.

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.


The Wheel or Helm, & capstan, HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "binnacle". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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hutch

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

THE HUTCH:

What is referred to as the Ship's Hutch was nothing more than a cabinet with a set of shelves, drawers, or a larger cabinet where poultry was kept on board.

Aboard the Quarter Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, near the steering Wheel or helm is the "hutch". There would have been a hutch on the original HMS that would have been where the poultry would have been kept in front of the wheel.

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "hutch". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

Share

capstan

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

THE CAPSTAN:

A large winch that has a vertical axis and used to hoist heavy spars, yards, and is also utilized in manuevering the ship while at anchor. It is a vertical axled rotating wheel developed for tall sailing ships to apply force to cables, ropes, and hawsers. It operates similar the windlass which is a horizontal winch of like-fashion. The word comes from the French "capestan" meaning "pulley cord" and the latin "capistrum" meaning to "take hold of". The word itself is believed to be of Spanish invention. The earliest capstans were often large timbers mounted vertically through a vessel's structure that was free to rotate. It had levers or bars affixed through holes at the top of the timber used to turn the capstan. Ropes wrapped several turns around the drum was then hauled upon and wound in a clockwise direction. These earlier models, evolved to wooden drums or barrels mounted on a iron axle which allowed crew to be on two decks to apply force to the bars. These later evolved to iron construction, with gearing in the head allowing mechanical use when the bars are pushed counter-clockwise. Shafts and gears for mechanization are usually found below deck. Modern capstans are powered hydraulically, electrically, or mechanically via a engine.

Atop the Quarter Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, resides the "capstan". This is at the stern of the boat. The capstan is a winch that has a vertical axis used to hoist heavy spars, yards, and utilized in maneuvering the ship while at anchor. Ten bars would be inserted and pushed in by crew and on the original HMS be solely worked by the crew's manual labor. Today on the HMB this is still done during rigging work.


The Wheel or Helm, & Tiller, HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "capstan". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

Share

tiller

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

THE TILLER:

The tiller is a heavy timber beam that is attached to the stern post and rudder. It is connected to the wheel by tackles and rope. It is a lever attached to the rudder post or stock and is classic to tall sailing ships. It is used by the captain or helmsman by directly pulling or pushing it, but can be moved remotely via the tiller lines. Rapid or excessive movement will cause increased drag and will brake or slow the boat. When used for steering, its always moved in the direction opposite of which the bow of the boat is to move. So if the tiller is moved to port side (left), the bow will turn to starboard (right). If tiller is moved to starboard, the bow will turn port. Sailing students use the phrase "Tiller Towards Trouble" to help them remember.

On top of the Quarter Deck or stern area of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour near the Wheel or "helm" which is manned by two crew men at all times - one on each side of it. This "wheel" is connected to the tiller by ropes run around the wooden drum up and through a set of blocks. On the HMB, there is a "kick-up" on the tiller that allows it to pass over the chimney from the Great Cabin's stove. The capstan is a winch that has a vertical axis used to hoist heavy spars, yards, and utilized in maneuvering the ship while at anchor. Ten bars would be inserted and pushed in by crew and on the original HMS be solely worked by the crew's manual labor. Today on the HMB this is still done during rigging work.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Tiller". en.wikipedia.org.


The Wheel or Helm, & Tiller, HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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Wheel or Helm

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship


The Wheel or Helm, & Tiller, HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

THE WHEEL OR HELM:

Atop the "Quarter Deck", usually just on the edge of the ship's waist and stern of the ship is the "helm" or the "wheel" of the ship, used for steering and navigation. This is home to the Wheel or "helm" which on tall sailing ships, is manned by two sailors at all times - one on each side of it. The stern and around the helm was also restricted to the Captain and officers. Any other crew would have to ask permission to be at the stern. From this vantage point, the officer would have a great view of the decks, sails, and crew. This "wheel" is connected to the tiller by ropes run around the wooden drum up and through a set of blocks. In combination of the rudder, tiller, and wheel - the ship would be steered. This combination would move the rudder that actually steers the ship. The sweep of the tiller and the ropes made the quarter deck difficult to walk across. Sometimes a "whipstaff" was used instead of a tiller, and this was a vertical stick acting on a tiller. Earlier sailing ships operated to correspond to the motion of the tiller, with a clockwise motion, turning the rudder and thus the ship to the left. The control direction of the wheel was reversed later after the 17th century to make it more consistent with the operations of a motor vehicle's steering wheel.

Modern ships used the steering wheel in the same regard, to adjust the angle of the boat or ship's rudder to force the vessel to change its course. Modern wheels are connected to a mechanical, hydraulic, or electric system and sometimes rather than using a wheel would have a toggle that remotely controls a electro-mechanical drive for the rudder.

Atop the Upper or Main Deck of the HMS Endeavour, is the ship's helm or wheel. This is towards the stern of the ship (rear). The wheel is connected to the tiller by ropes run around a wooden drum up and through a set of blocks. On the HMB, there is a "kick-up" on the tiller that allows it to pass over the chimney from the Great Cabin's stove. Near to the wheel would be the hutch on the original HMS that would have been where the poultry would have been kept in front of the wheel. Also near the wheel would be the binnacle which would house the compass, lanterns, and half-hour glass.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Helm", "Steering wheel". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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Ship’s Bell

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Life on the Sea, Parts of the Ship

The Ship's Bell:

The Ship's Bell was used as a timekeeper. It was usually made of bronze and often had the ship's name engraved on it. It was usually the job of the ship's cook or his staff to shine the bell daily. It was also used for foggy conditions to safely pass through areas. It was also rung when officers and dignitaries came aboard or left the ship. The ship's bell, was used to tell the time of day for all the crew and officer's to be guided by. The bell would be struck each half hour. Most crew would have a watch of four hours. A four hour watch was comprised of one to eight bell rings. One hour is indicated by two bell strikes struck close together.

  • 1 bell ~ 12:30 or 16:30
  • 2 bells ~ 13:00 or 17:00
  • 3 bells ~ 13:30 or 17:30
  • 4 bells ~ 10:00 or 14:00 or 18:00
  • 5 bells ~ 10:30 or 14:30
  • 6 bells ~ 11:00 or 15:00
  • 7 bells ~ 11:30 or 15:30
  • 8 bells ~ 12:00 or 16:00

Onboard the Upper or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour. Facing and directly in front of the bowsprit from the waist of the ship, lies the Ship's Bell.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Ship's Bell". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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seats of ease

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Life on the Sea, Parts of the Ship

SEATS OF EASE:

The onboard, above deck latrine used in historic sailing vessels was called the "Seats of Ease". This is very similar to the guarderobe in castles. It was a also called the "ship's head" and was the sanitary facility aboard the ship. These were written about even as early as 600 B.C.E. on a ivory plaque from the sanctuary of Artemis Orthia in Sparta. This is reprinted in the “Those Vulgar Tubes. External sanitary accommodations aboard European ships of the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries” by Joe Simmons. A good historical archaeological paper is written on the excavation of one here: http://www.qaronline.org/techSeries/QAR-B-09-02.pdf. These became popular in historic ships by the late 17th century, with European use documented from 1670-1689 C.E. taking on a keyhole shape similar to the Roman's stone seats so one would know which way to sit. These commonly were placed on both sides of the bow, sometimes equipped with drainage pipes to direct the excrement down to the sea, while many others were just open holes down to the water below. For the captain and officers, separate "seats of ease" called "quarter galleries" were located at the stern of the ship, and offered a bit more privacy from the rest of the crew - otherwise would have been style the same. The seats on the bow were quite dangerous in rough weather, but always served to keep the area clean with the constant splashing of the waves on and over the bow. "pissdales" were added on to ships later, as metallic urinals or tubes, as lead funnels, leading overboards, along the side of the ship for "No. 1".

Aboard the Upper or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, by sides of the bowsprit and catheads, were the infamous "seats of ease". On the HMB Endeavour, this along with the bow, was made of Western Australian jarrah while the original HMS would have been oak or elm. These were used by the crew in the original days. The modern HMB has flushing toilets down on the 20th century deck. As toilet paper was not used back in the day of the HMS, rags or frayed ends of rope would be used to wipe with sea water.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Chesapeake Bay Journal: "Chesapeake boaters must use their 'head' wisely". Website referenced December 2011. http://www.bayjournal.com/article.cfm?article=2213.
  • Daniel, Shanna L. 2009 "The Seat of Ease: Sanitary Facilities from Shipwreck 31CR314: Queen Anne's Revenge Site". North Carolina. Webpage referenced December 2011. http://www.qaronline.org/techSeries/QAR-B-09-02.pdf.
  • HMS Victory: Seats of Ease. Website referenced December 2011. http://www.hmsvictorymodelship.com/Seats.html.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

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