MATH Marine Anthropology Modules

Nov 19
The Posts on this page are the summaries for the courses developed by Marine Archaeologist Yvonne-Cher Skye while living aboard the Mary and Bill of Rights in Chula Vista, California, U.S.A.. It consists of 21 aspects of Marine Anthropology which can be taught in a seminar single-day format or over an 18-week semester. The supplemental materials will be available for purchase via paypal or credit card on her webpage located at the YGFI- Your Girl Friday International Website.  Links to individual modules and their introductions will be posted on this page, as well as on the Skye Research Page on YGFI's website. To gain a better understanding of the courses that are offered, please read the introduction page here. Follow the links to the other posts which will provide links to the specific page on the website to purchase that module.  At the present time, they are provided as an entire package, which includes:
  • Course Outline
  • Glossary
  • Module
  • Notes
  • References available
  • Websites
  • Summary of course to promote to students and the public
  • Handouts
  • Video list of related topics
As well as each document is available for single purchase. The purpose of these modules is to provide an unique educational opportunity which does not require formal educational training to conduct the course.  The idea of providing so many supplemental materials is to ensure satisfaction of the attendees of the course, as well as the boards or governing bodies of any organization that chooses to add these courses to their existing programs.  As stated in the introduction module this is only the skeleton of the courses, and it can stand alone as an introductory course, further more advanced courses will be developed in the future. Ms. Skye has also developed modules for Climatology, Marine Science, and soon to be announced. MATH 001 In the Beginning - Summary MATH 002 Fabled Lands - Summary MATH 003 Legendary Voyages - Summary MATH 004 Sea Quests, Famous Expeditions and Explorers - Summary MATH 005 Maritime History - Summary MATH 006 Nautical Custom - Summary MATH 007 Life at Sea - Summary MATH 008 Famous Captains - Summary MATH 009 Mutinies - Summary MATH 010 Big Ships - Summary MATH 011 Death and Disaster - Summary MATH 012 Navigable Waters - Summary MATH 013 Castaways and Survivors - Summary MATH 014 Criminals - Summary MATH 015 Myths - Summary MATH 016 Mysteries - Summary MATH 017 Monsters - Summary MATH 018 Wraiths of the Sea - Summary MATH 019 Superstitions and Beliefs - Summary MATH 020 Famous Ships - Summary MATH 021 Battles - Summary
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Sails

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

SAILS:

Sails are any type of surface that are used to propel a vessel using the wind. They are most commonly used in sailing ships, but have been used for rotors and vehicles. Above the Upper or Main deck would be the sails extending off their supports called the masts as well as off the front of the bow in tall sailing ships along the bowsprit. Modern tall sailing ships, such as the HMB Endeavour sails are made of synthetic canvas called Duradon which has the same feel and appearance that the original flax canvas ones that would have been found on the HMS Endeavour. The sails would be raised, set, secured, guided, and loosened by means of the riggings. (On the HMB Endeavour there is over 18 miles of rope rigging) The earliest sails were found to have dated from 3200 BCE in Ancient Egypt most likely used in reed boats sailing upstream against the Nile's current. Other sails have been found used by the Ancient Sumerians at the same time.

There are various types of sails. square sails are even mounted to boat's hulls to aid in downwind sailing, common from the Mediterranean, China, Ecuador, and throughout Europe. Aft and Fore sails, as well as the spritsail, gaff rig, jib, staysail, genoa, and Bermuda rig were created by the Europeans and had heavy use from the 16th-19th centuries. Early sails were made of cotton fabric or canvas, while modern swails are made with modern non-stretch fabrics such as Duradon, Nylon, Aramid, Kevlar, Carbon Fibre, HMPE, Zylon, Vectran, or Dacron and usually broadseamed. The ships are propelled by sails in one of two ways - when the boat is going in the direction of the wind, the sails are aligned to trap the air as it flows by a driving force called "drag". The other method, is when the sails propel the boat while it is travelling across or into the wind. In this way the sails act as airfoils propelling the ship by redirecting the wind coming in from the side towards the rear of the ship by means of "drag" and "lift". Lower edge of a triangular sail is called the "foot", while the upper point is called the "head". Lower two points of the sail on either side of the foot are called the "tack" (forward) and the "clew" (aft). Forward edge of the sail is called the "luff", and the aft edge of a sail is called the "leech". "Main sails" are the main element of the sail plan acting like the "motor" or "rudder" for the boat. They can be as simple as the triangular shaped cross-cut sail. "Head sails" are the main driving mechanism when going upwind (towards the wind). The most common of these are the Genoa or Jib. "Spinnakers" are used for reaching and running downwind sailing and are light with a balloon-like shape. Earlier 16th-18th century tall sailing ships could obtain an average of 3 knots while modern ships can get well over 10 knots.

Sails are three-dimensional curved surfaces when raised in the wind creating an airfoil. To create sails to make this "curved" airfoil surface, they need to be designed by a number of panels cut and sew together to create the foil. Many of the earlier sails were made traditionally as parallel panels (cross cut) which evolved into more complex radial designs with differently shaped panels. A professional person who manufactures sails is called a "sailmaker".

In tall sailing ships, the main sails are:

  • Bowsprit: the spritsail, sprit topsail, the fore topmast staysail, and the jib.
  • The foremast: has the fore course, fore topsail, fore topgallant.
  • Between the foremast and mainmast: The main staysail, main topmast staysail, main topgallant staysail.
  • Mainmast: main course, main topsail, main topgallant.
  • Between the mainmast and mizzenmast: the mizzen staysail, mizzen topmast staysail.
  • Mizzenmast: mizzen course, mizzen topsail.
  • Studding sails: are additional sails that can be set alongside the square sails in light airs.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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Masts

Dec 30
Posted by leafworks Filed in Decks, Parts of the Ship

MASTS:

Masts belong to the outer deck of sailing ships. On taller sailing ships, they extend straight up vertically off the upper or main deck. A mast-like pole called the Extended off of the masts would be sails and rigging. On tall sailing ships, from the bow (front) to stern (back) are several tall masts. These are the bowsprit, foremast, mainmast, and mizzenmast. The bowsprit extends horizontally or angled upwards from the bow, and while it has some purposes similar to a mast, is different than most of the other masts. Masts can range in shapes and sizes, from vertical, horizontal, near vertical, spar, an arrangement of spars, or tall - all of which exist to support the sails. The larger the ship, generally the more the masts. Nearly all of the masts in tall ships are guyed masts. Pre-19th century, most masts were wooden formed from a single piece of timber typically a trunk of a conifer tree, especially from the 16th-18th century as being a single tall trunk of a tree. In ships after the 19th century, the foremast and mainmast are usually made from three pieces of timber on the large ships, while the mizzenmast are made from two pieces of lumber. To achieve the required heights, masts are built from up to four sections known in order of rising height above the decks as the lower, top, topgallant, and royal masts. Single pieces of timber masts are called "pole masts". By the 1930's, especially in yachts, aluminum masts were introduced on smaller crafts. They became advantageous on smaller vessels because they were lighter, slimmer, impervious to rot, and can be produced as a single extruded length. By World War II, they were common on all smaller yachts and dingies.

    MASTS:
  • Foremast: first mast, or mast fore of the main mast.
  • Main Mast: tallest mast, usually at ship center.
  • Mizzen Mast: Third mast, usually immediately aft of the main mast. Typically it is shorter than the foremast.
  • Jigger Mast: the shortest, the aft-most mast on vessels with more than three masts.

On the HMB Endeavour, the masts are made of laminated Douglas Fir. The Original HMS Endeavour's masts would have been either fir or spruce. The Endeavour had three masts, and was rigged carrying square sails on each mast.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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HMB Endeavour In-Depth: Upper or Main Deck

Dec 30
Posted by leafworks Filed in Decks, Ships

HMB Endeavour In-Depth: Upper Deck or Main Deck:
HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

The Upper or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour is the top floor of the ship open to the elements underneath the sails. It is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour. The bowsprit and masts, as well as the decks and topsides are all laminated Douglas fir. The Original HMS would have also been fir or spruce. The ship's keel, frame, and lower hull is made of Western Australian jarrah while the original HMS would have been oak or elm. The HMB's sails are made of synthetic canvas called Duradon which has the same feel and appearance that the original flax canvas on the HMS would have been like. The rigging consists of over 18 miles (29 kilometers) of rope. There were six anchors on the original HMS, four of which were located on the bow. The two largest, would each weigh just under a ton, and would be at the front of the bow. The original HMS would have been painted with the Royal Naval colors of blue, yellow, and black with the sides shining of varnished pine. The ship would have at that time flown the Red Ensign as a converted merchant collier into a King's ship. This appearance caused problems for the ship when arriving in some ports, especially at Rio de Janeiro thinking they be British spies or pirates causing them to be denied permission to land. She had three masts, and was rigged carrying square sails on each mast. There originally was no figurehead, though the quarter windows had been decorated with carved badge and the stern with other simple carvings. For the HMB, these were recreated based off of crew artist Sydney Parkinson drawings. The original HMS would have had sweeps (large oars) for emergency maneuvers.

    Terms of orientation on the decks:
  • Aft: Towards the rear of the ship.
  • Bow: The Front of the ship.
  • Forward: Towards the Front of the ship.
  • Port: Left side of the ship while facing the bow.
  • Starboard: Right side of the ship while facing the bow.
  • Stern: Rear of the ship.

THE FOREDECK: (BOW)

Here at the front of the ship, or the "Bow" is where the two largest anchors (each weighing just under a ton) would be located. Those found here on the HMB were replicated and based off those found from the 1770 shipwreck on the Great Barrier Reef believed to have belonged to the original HMS. The anchors are raised and released by means of the catheads which are the large black timbers extending forward of the bow, one on each side of the bowsprit. These are pulled up using the windlass. The windlass is a horizontal winch that is turned manually by the crew's manual labor, by use of the long wooden bars located just front of the waist of the ship. Next to the catheads are the seats of ease used by the crew in the original days. The modern HMB has flushing toilets down on the 20th century deck. As toilet paper was not used back in the day of the HMS, rags or frayed ends of rope would be used to wipe with sea water. The ship's bell, was used to tell the time of day for all the crew and officer's to be guided by. The bell would be struck each half hour. Most crew would have a watch of four hours. A four hour watch was comprised of one to eight bell rings. One hour is indicated by two bell strikes struck close together.

  • 1 bell ~ 12:30 or 16:30
  • 2 bells ~ 13:00 or 17:00
  • 3 bells ~ 13:30 or 17:30
  • 4 bells ~ 10:00 or 14:00 or 18:00
  • 5 bells ~ 10:30 or 14:30
  • 6 bells ~ 11:00 or 15:00
  • 7 bells ~ 11:30 or 15:30
  • 8 bells ~ 12:00 or 16:00

THE WAIST: (MIDDLE)

This is the section of the main deck where the long boat would be stored. It is also where alot of the riggings and ropes would be tied. It is the area inbetween the masts.

Read About the Quarter Deck, Helm, and More Photos: Read the rest of this entry »

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HMB Endeavour In-Depth: Officer’s Mess

Dec 29
Posted by leafworks Filed in Life on the Sea, Ships

HMB Endeavour - In-Depth: The Officer's Mess & Gentlemen's Quarters
HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Another interesting area of the HMB Endeavour is the Gentlemen's Quarters and Officer's Mess which is stylized after which was expected it would have looked like on the original HMS Endeavour. As I was a volunteer tourguide for the ship while in harbour in Brisbane, I had to address questions for this area often from school kids, visitors, and tourists as they often bottle-knecked in their flow of traffic in this room as space is tight. It required some stooping to get to the area and to make oneself comfortable. A Marine, who were quite like "policemen" or guards onboard would be stationed here, wearing their bright red coats, to protect the Captain, the officers, and the scientific crew.

In the central area, surrounded by the officer's cabins, was the "Officer's Mess". Here you can see re-created latticed pantries that were most likely used for food storage as well as meal preparation for the Captain and his fellow officers. It is now where the modern ship's navigation and GPS equipment is setup. This is where the main officers would mess, relax, eat their meals, and write in their journals at the central table. This central table is replicated from Captain Cook's table at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, United Kingdom. The sideboards are filled with china, pewter dishes, food, and drink. It is also where the "supers" onboard the current voyages would have snacks provided to them. The gentlemen's servants often slung their hammocks in this room to be near to their masters, so the chambers was very busy and crowded. The glazed quarter deck hatch overhead provided light to the mess room and would have been where the Captain's clerk Richard Orton who may have worked under. This area would have had two stern loading hatches which were sealed during the journey, but opened during anchor. All the meals were prepared at the firehearth which would have been a large iron cooking range bolted to the deck.

Cabins would ring the central room, most of which were little more than hutches sized approximately 6x5 feet with a deck height of 4 feet and 6 inches. Each would have a small hatch and internal window for ventilation. These were all fitted to Admirality orders to "have proper sashes glazed with stone ground glass for lighting the front and to finish the insides with bedplaces and lockers, and all conveniences that shall be required and its customary to do ..." One of the cabins around the mess was the one belonging to Dr. Daniel Solander. Another cabin belonged to Charles Green, the astonomer. The cabin is decorated in period style, with a copy of his original journal on hand-made paper written with quill on his desk, as well as purported copies of curtains and bedspread that originally would have been weaved by his wife. Apparently during the voyage, a flying fish leaped through his portal hatch window. Near this cabin, would have been the cabin of Herman Sporing. The other main cabin outlining this room is a joint-cabin, where Sydney Parkinson and Alexander Buchan and Master Robert Molyneux and Second Lieutenant Zachary Hicks. In this re-created cabin are copies of Parkinson's original paintings, belongings, clothes, books, and effects.

From this room entering into the Great Cabin would be on the right (starboard) side the cabin of Captain James Cook. This would have been the largest cabin on the ship, and displayed here in the replica are copies of his desk, books, charts, and uniform. It is based on the original April 1768 Deptford Yard plans. Like the other officers, he slept in a swinging cot which would be lashed up during the day. All the sheets onboard the museum are hand-loomed linen and hand-finished, while the curtains would be hand-loomed wool to replicate what they would have been like during the voyage.

For more Information About

The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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HMB Endeavour In-Depth: The Great Cabin

Apr 28
Posted by Tom Filed in Life on the Sea, Ships


HMB Endeavour In-Depth: The Great Cabin

The HMB Endeavour is the official "replica" of the original of Captain Cook's ship, the HMS Endeavour. It was the HMS that was used to sail from England to study of the transit of Venus across the sky from different parts of the globe in order to measure the distance between the Sun and the Earth as well as for a secret mission to find the mythical land of Terra Australis Incognita which has become modern day Australia. The original Endeavour was planned in April 1768 in Deptford Yard where the original first set of deck plans for the bark Endeavour were designed. When the main cabin was first designed, it was based on the sole use of the captain as his working and dining area with his bedplace led off on the starboard side with two smaller cabins on port side for use as pantries separated by a lobby. After Deptford Yard was notified that Joseph Banks would be on board they had to re-design the cabin so that it would be shared with Cook, Banks, and his men. In this re-design, the main cabin was not enlarged, but shortened to six feet 2 inches by six feet, described as a "place of retirement which just held a Few Books and our papers". Due to Joseph Banks size at 6'4", during the voyage, he would often sling his hammock in the Great Cabin for additional comfort as Did Dr. Solander.

The HMB Endeavour was built in Fremantle, Western Australia as a bicentennial gift to Australia from the Bond Corporation and is universally regarded as the most authentic replica afloat. As I joined the crew in April of 2011 right after the first leg of their first ever circumnavigation around Australia sailing just as they arrived from Sydney to Brisbane. As a volunteer tour guide, I quickly had to learn the history of Captain Cook and the Endeavour. One of my first duty stations was in the Great Cabin, re-created to be viewed as we imagine Captain Cook's original "Great Cabin" was to have looked like during his quest to Australia. This chamber represented the place on board where Captain Cook, Joseph Banks, and Dr. Solander would have spent most of their time during the voyage while on board. Just like in the days of old, the current Great Cabin is the domain of the captain. Usually, the Great Cabin was not shared with other crew, but when the prestigious Joseph Banks and his group joined the expedition, Captain Cook had to share the room with them. The HMB Endeavour's onboard museum has re-created this cabin to appear as the Australian National Maritime Museum has re-enacted it based on a scene described by Joseph Banks in his writings of the original journey.

The walls or bulkheads are panelled with a style based on sections of tongue and groove panelling recovered from the wreck of a 18th century merchant ship believed to be a collier built in Whitby, as was the original Endeavour believed to have had. It was fashionable in the middle of the 18th century to change the color of their rooms from olive, stone, beige, and brown to newer and brighter colors of blue and green. Wood brown and stone was chosen for the Endeavour replica to demonstrate more "masculine" rooms since it was used as a study and library. Shipyard specifications recommended they were painted with three coats of priming and one final coat of the color of stone, wood, or beige, well grounded and laid with linseed oil.

There is a letter from Cook on June 30, 1768 where he requested from the Navy board that a green baize floor cloth to be supplied for the Great Cabin's floor which is described in Bank's writings about the Great Cabin as having existed during their journey as a red floor cloth of painted canvas.

A heating stove stands in the front of the room against the wall between entrance to the Officer's Mess, Captain Cook's bedroom, and Joseph Bank's Bedroom. This is a replica and serves to demonstrate what a onboard stove at this time would have looked like in this cabin. In 1791, the Royal Navy frigate named the HMS Pandora (built 1778 in Deptford) was travelling across the Great Barrier Reef when it became wrecked during a voyage to return Bounty mutineers. When the wreck was discovered in 1984, a heating stove was recovered. It is believed to have been a similar one to that which would have been originally found on the HMS Endeavour. This is the stove the replica is based on.

The Great Cabin had four stern windows and two quarter windows to provide as much natural light and ventilation as possible. It is unknown to date how these stern windows were opened and closed. For the replica, it was built with two curved top panes of each window fixed into position with the lower sash dropping neatly into the stern counter. Sashes were raised by lead weights replicated from weights found on the Pandora wreck.

In the corners of the room are wooden cabinets and cupboards that are styled after what Joseph Banks described to have been in the Main Cabin. Replicated bottles and pewter artifacts are displayed within them. A serving table extending from these cupboards are also displayed in this museum room.

The center sternpost in the main cabin contains a wooden "trunnel" surrounded by a brass ring that was originally carried aboard the US Space Shuttle "Endeavour" during its maiden mission into space in 1992 by its commander Daniel C. Brandenstein. When Daniel visited the Endeavour when it was built in Fremantle, he hammered this trunnel into the sternpost to unit the sailing ship's voyage with the space shuttle's mission.

In this museum room is the desk of Joseph Banks who spent many hours every day in this room writing in his naturalist journal about the voyage. Papers from his journal, replicated from the original on hand-made paper, sit atop the desk. Also are some of his 110 books replicated from editions that now reside in the British Library, as well as a replica of a cloak he traded in New Zealand, his shaving gear, and a collection of shells from the expedition.

At the main table in the center of the room is where it is believed that Dr. Solander sat checking new plants collected during the expedition and classifying them using Linnaeus' taxonomy books "Species Plantarum". He was known to first draw the plants from the live specimens, then dry them for the return voyage back. Also at the table would be charts by Sydney Parkinson and drawings by James Cook and his fellow officers.

Displayed around the great cabin are many artifacts and gifts received through the years by the actual HMB Endeavour to demonstrate similar gifts that would have been received during the voyages of the HMS Endeavour. These are gifts from indigenous communities that the replica has visited since 1994 including a Australian Aboriginal dalungda pendant (Nautilus shell) that hangs above the table, next to a Maori taiaha war staff from New Zealand, and a Maori manaia of carved whale bone. Above the sternpost can be found a Australian Aboriginal bunch of feathers next to a dithol. On the overhead beam is a Australian Aboriginal fishing spear. Portside wall has a Sooke Indian Paddle from Canada and a French Boomerang. Starboard is a South American seed, and an Australian Aboriginal boomerang and message stick, with another message stick above the fireplace.

For more Information About

The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.


Read the rest of this entry »

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