MATH Marine Anthropology Modules

Nov 19
The Posts on this page are the summaries for the courses developed by Marine Archaeologist Yvonne-Cher Skye while living aboard the Mary and Bill of Rights in Chula Vista, California, U.S.A.. It consists of 21 aspects of Marine Anthropology which can be taught in a seminar single-day format or over an 18-week semester. The supplemental materials will be available for purchase via paypal or credit card on her webpage located at the YGFI- Your Girl Friday International Website.  Links to individual modules and their introductions will be posted on this page, as well as on the Skye Research Page on YGFI's website. To gain a better understanding of the courses that are offered, please read the introduction page here. Follow the links to the other posts which will provide links to the specific page on the website to purchase that module.  At the present time, they are provided as an entire package, which includes:
  • Course Outline
  • Glossary
  • Module
  • Notes
  • References available
  • Websites
  • Summary of course to promote to students and the public
  • Handouts
  • Video list of related topics
As well as each document is available for single purchase. The purpose of these modules is to provide an unique educational opportunity which does not require formal educational training to conduct the course.  The idea of providing so many supplemental materials is to ensure satisfaction of the attendees of the course, as well as the boards or governing bodies of any organization that chooses to add these courses to their existing programs.  As stated in the introduction module this is only the skeleton of the courses, and it can stand alone as an introductory course, further more advanced courses will be developed in the future. Ms. Skye has also developed modules for Climatology, Marine Science, and soon to be announced. MATH 001 In the Beginning - Summary MATH 002 Fabled Lands - Summary MATH 003 Legendary Voyages - Summary MATH 004 Sea Quests, Famous Expeditions and Explorers - Summary MATH 005 Maritime History - Summary MATH 006 Nautical Custom - Summary MATH 007 Life at Sea - Summary MATH 008 Famous Captains - Summary MATH 009 Mutinies - Summary MATH 010 Big Ships - Summary MATH 011 Death and Disaster - Summary MATH 012 Navigable Waters - Summary MATH 013 Castaways and Survivors - Summary MATH 014 Criminals - Summary MATH 015 Myths - Summary MATH 016 Mysteries - Summary MATH 017 Monsters - Summary MATH 018 Wraiths of the Sea - Summary MATH 019 Superstitions and Beliefs - Summary MATH 020 Famous Ships - Summary MATH 021 Battles - Summary
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figurehead

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

THE FIGURE HEAD:

Sometimes under the bowsprit is what is known as the "figure head" on a ship's bow. These are usually "wooden" carved decorations found at the bow or prow of the ships. Most common in use from the 16th-19th centuries. Earliest use was found on Viking ships from 800-1100 C.E. It evolved as did the head structure of ships became developed. Some believe they are for the superstitious purpose of warding off evil spirits from the ship. They were popular with the tall sailing ships of the time.

There is no figurehead aboard the HMB Endeavour as the original architectural drawings do not depict one on the HMS Endeavour.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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HMB Endeavour In-Depth: Upper or Main Deck

Dec 30
Posted by leafworks Filed in Decks, Ships

HMB Endeavour In-Depth: Upper Deck or Main Deck:
HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

The Upper or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour is the top floor of the ship open to the elements underneath the sails. It is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour. The bowsprit and masts, as well as the decks and topsides are all laminated Douglas fir. The Original HMS would have also been fir or spruce. The ship's keel, frame, and lower hull is made of Western Australian jarrah while the original HMS would have been oak or elm. The HMB's sails are made of synthetic canvas called Duradon which has the same feel and appearance that the original flax canvas on the HMS would have been like. The rigging consists of over 18 miles (29 kilometers) of rope. There were six anchors on the original HMS, four of which were located on the bow. The two largest, would each weigh just under a ton, and would be at the front of the bow. The original HMS would have been painted with the Royal Naval colors of blue, yellow, and black with the sides shining of varnished pine. The ship would have at that time flown the Red Ensign as a converted merchant collier into a King's ship. This appearance caused problems for the ship when arriving in some ports, especially at Rio de Janeiro thinking they be British spies or pirates causing them to be denied permission to land. She had three masts, and was rigged carrying square sails on each mast. There originally was no figurehead, though the quarter windows had been decorated with carved badge and the stern with other simple carvings. For the HMB, these were recreated based off of crew artist Sydney Parkinson drawings. The original HMS would have had sweeps (large oars) for emergency maneuvers.

    Terms of orientation on the decks:
  • Aft: Towards the rear of the ship.
  • Bow: The Front of the ship.
  • Forward: Towards the Front of the ship.
  • Port: Left side of the ship while facing the bow.
  • Starboard: Right side of the ship while facing the bow.
  • Stern: Rear of the ship.

THE FOREDECK: (BOW)

Here at the front of the ship, or the "Bow" is where the two largest anchors (each weighing just under a ton) would be located. Those found here on the HMB were replicated and based off those found from the 1770 shipwreck on the Great Barrier Reef believed to have belonged to the original HMS. The anchors are raised and released by means of the catheads which are the large black timbers extending forward of the bow, one on each side of the bowsprit. These are pulled up using the windlass. The windlass is a horizontal winch that is turned manually by the crew's manual labor, by use of the long wooden bars located just front of the waist of the ship. Next to the catheads are the seats of ease used by the crew in the original days. The modern HMB has flushing toilets down on the 20th century deck. As toilet paper was not used back in the day of the HMS, rags or frayed ends of rope would be used to wipe with sea water. The ship's bell, was used to tell the time of day for all the crew and officer's to be guided by. The bell would be struck each half hour. Most crew would have a watch of four hours. A four hour watch was comprised of one to eight bell rings. One hour is indicated by two bell strikes struck close together.

  • 1 bell ~ 12:30 or 16:30
  • 2 bells ~ 13:00 or 17:00
  • 3 bells ~ 13:30 or 17:30
  • 4 bells ~ 10:00 or 14:00 or 18:00
  • 5 bells ~ 10:30 or 14:30
  • 6 bells ~ 11:00 or 15:00
  • 7 bells ~ 11:30 or 15:30
  • 8 bells ~ 12:00 or 16:00

THE WAIST: (MIDDLE)

This is the section of the main deck where the long boat would be stored. It is also where alot of the riggings and ropes would be tied. It is the area inbetween the masts.

Read About the Quarter Deck, Helm, and More Photos: Read the rest of this entry »

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HMB Endeavour In-Depth: Officer’s Mess

Dec 29
Posted by leafworks Filed in Life on the Sea, Ships

HMB Endeavour - In-Depth: The Officer's Mess & Gentlemen's Quarters
HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Another interesting area of the HMB Endeavour is the Gentlemen's Quarters and Officer's Mess which is stylized after which was expected it would have looked like on the original HMS Endeavour. As I was a volunteer tourguide for the ship while in harbour in Brisbane, I had to address questions for this area often from school kids, visitors, and tourists as they often bottle-knecked in their flow of traffic in this room as space is tight. It required some stooping to get to the area and to make oneself comfortable. A Marine, who were quite like "policemen" or guards onboard would be stationed here, wearing their bright red coats, to protect the Captain, the officers, and the scientific crew.

In the central area, surrounded by the officer's cabins, was the "Officer's Mess". Here you can see re-created latticed pantries that were most likely used for food storage as well as meal preparation for the Captain and his fellow officers. It is now where the modern ship's navigation and GPS equipment is setup. This is where the main officers would mess, relax, eat their meals, and write in their journals at the central table. This central table is replicated from Captain Cook's table at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, United Kingdom. The sideboards are filled with china, pewter dishes, food, and drink. It is also where the "supers" onboard the current voyages would have snacks provided to them. The gentlemen's servants often slung their hammocks in this room to be near to their masters, so the chambers was very busy and crowded. The glazed quarter deck hatch overhead provided light to the mess room and would have been where the Captain's clerk Richard Orton who may have worked under. This area would have had two stern loading hatches which were sealed during the journey, but opened during anchor. All the meals were prepared at the firehearth which would have been a large iron cooking range bolted to the deck.

Cabins would ring the central room, most of which were little more than hutches sized approximately 6x5 feet with a deck height of 4 feet and 6 inches. Each would have a small hatch and internal window for ventilation. These were all fitted to Admirality orders to "have proper sashes glazed with stone ground glass for lighting the front and to finish the insides with bedplaces and lockers, and all conveniences that shall be required and its customary to do ..." One of the cabins around the mess was the one belonging to Dr. Daniel Solander. Another cabin belonged to Charles Green, the astonomer. The cabin is decorated in period style, with a copy of his original journal on hand-made paper written with quill on his desk, as well as purported copies of curtains and bedspread that originally would have been weaved by his wife. Apparently during the voyage, a flying fish leaped through his portal hatch window. Near this cabin, would have been the cabin of Herman Sporing. The other main cabin outlining this room is a joint-cabin, where Sydney Parkinson and Alexander Buchan and Master Robert Molyneux and Second Lieutenant Zachary Hicks. In this re-created cabin are copies of Parkinson's original paintings, belongings, clothes, books, and effects.

From this room entering into the Great Cabin would be on the right (starboard) side the cabin of Captain James Cook. This would have been the largest cabin on the ship, and displayed here in the replica are copies of his desk, books, charts, and uniform. It is based on the original April 1768 Deptford Yard plans. Like the other officers, he slept in a swinging cot which would be lashed up during the day. All the sheets onboard the museum are hand-loomed linen and hand-finished, while the curtains would be hand-loomed wool to replicate what they would have been like during the voyage.

For more Information About

The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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The HMB Endeavour

Dec 15
Posted by leafworks Filed in Expeditions, Life on the Sea, Projects, Ships

HMB Endeavour
* 1994 - Present * Australian Maritime Museum, Sydney, Australia * http://www.anmm.gov.au/ *

In honor of one of the world's greatest explorers, Captain James Cook, and his ship the HMS Endeavor, a replica was started in 1988 to commemorate the Australian Bicentenary of European Settlement in Australia by the Bond Corporation. Constructed in Fremantle, Western Australia, she was completed in 1993 and commissioned in 1994 as one of the world's most accurate maritime reproductions ever built. She took funding from various organizations, corporations, government, and private sources as well as labor and support from volunteers in the Fremantle community. She was operated by the HM Bark Endeavor Foundation until 2005. She was taken over by the Australian government through the Australian National Maritime Museum (ANMM) in 2005 to the present day. Her maiden voyage took place in October of 1994 sailing to Sydney Harbour and following Cook's path from Botany Bay to Cooktown. From 1996-2002 she retraced Cook's ports of call around the world arriving in Whitby in 2002. She has since circum-navigated the world twice with over 170,000 nautical miles on her clock, visiting over 29 countries, most of the Pacific Islands, a ship museum in 116 ports, and this year of 2011, has embarked upon its first ever circumnavigation of Australia replicating Captain Cook's original circling of Australia that is expected to take 13 months of sailing with a core professional crew and 40 adventurous voyage crew members learning the ropes of sailing a historic ship and what life was like in the 18th century onboard. The HMB will be docking at various ports every 5-12 days as it makes its way around Australia for visitors to embrace her glory and tour her presence in port of these particular cities as a floating museum. She will be docking in Brisbane (28 April – 8 May 2011), Gladstone (21 – 26 May), Townsville (10 – 14 June), Cairns (24 June – 5 July), Darwin (3 – 14 August), Geraldton (30 September – 4 October), Fremantle (14 October – 1 November), Bunbury (9 – 13 November), Fremantle (20 November – 30 December), Albany (14 – 18 January 2012), Port Lincoln (4 – 8 February), Adelaide (16 – 23 February), Portland (7 – 11 March), Hobart (24 March – 3 April), Melbourne (18 – 29 April), Eden (9 – 13 May) with brief visits to Thursday Island, North Qld (16 – 19 July 2011), Broome, WA (29 August – 1 September 2011) and Exmouth, WA (14 – 17 September 2011) to take on provisions and exchange voyage crew. Voyage crew members will sleep in hammocks and work hard climbing masts and hoisting sails. Four "supernumeraries" will have their own individual cabins and participate in the less arduous tasks on the ship. She has been completely refit for this 2011 voyage. The ship is beautifully crafted in replica-fashion giving the visitor a glimpse of a sailor's life during the epic 1768-1771 voyage that brought Captain Cook to the shores of Australia. The replica has over 30 kilometers of rope and over 50 wooden blocks and pulleys, masts and spars holding 28 sails that manifest over 10,000 square feet of canvas. Life will be demonstrated during the tours on deck, in the galley where one can view the great firehearth that was state of the art in 1768. One can look over Captain Cook's Great Cabin where he worked, dined, and shared quarters with the world famous botanist Joseph Banks. The replica is under the command of its regular master aptain Ross Mattson. While every advantage to power her by wind will be used in every respect as Cook's original vessel could, she also carries engines, generators, an electric galley, showers, and safety equipment hidden in the cargo hold where the historic provisions were originally kept. Her 2011 voyage can be viewed in a daily log/ blog beginning here: http://anmm.wordpress.com/2011/04/15/day-1-%e2%80%93-sydney-to-brisbane-fond-farewells/.

The masts, bowsprit, deck, and topsides are all laminated Douglas fir on the HMB Endeavor. The Original ship, the HMS Endeavor, had spruce or fir as the main wood. The keel, lower hull, and frame of the ship is made from Western Australian hardwood jarrah while the HMS was of oak or elm. The HMB Endeavor's sails are made from a synthetic canvas called Duradon while the original was of flax canvas. Over 18 miles of rope is used in the rigging. The six anchors with four carried on the bow weighing just under a ton in weight were replicated from those found after being lost from the original Endeavor on the Great Barrier Reef in 1770. The anchors are raised by the catheads and winched up by the windlass, all of which are replicated from the specifics of the original ship. The seats of ease are also replicated that are located by the catheads. The HMB Endeavor strikes the ship's bell to tell the time of day - struck each half hour. A four hour watch is comprised of 1-8 bells with one hour indicated by two bells struck closely together. The firehearth down below has been replicated as a huge iron stove sitting on a stone hearth set on tin and sand to protect the deck in the best way possible to mimic the HMS Endeavor as a working model. It gained such attention in that it works and cooks 18th century type meals so well, it was featured in the BBC documentary "The Ship" filmed on board in 2001. Various 18th century replicas of kitchen and feasting items are on display. On the hatch are displayed various casks, containers, and sailmaker's tools. A piece of pig iron ballast from the original ship recovered from the Endeavor Reef in Queensland is lashed to the central pillar representing the only original item on board. Hammocks and swinging cots were replicated and used by the operational crew. Mattresses onboard are handmade following 1760 specifications stuffed with wool and cotton waste. The latticed pantries were used for food storage and the preparation areas where Captain Cook would make plans is now where the navigation equipment is stored. The cabin of Charles Green, the Royal Society appointed astronomer, contains a copy of his original hand-made paper journal he made observations in by quill. The replicated curtains and bedspread are an attempt to match that which his wife originally made for him. The cabin shared by the artists, Sydney Parkinson and Alexander Buchan contain copies of Parkinson's paintings, clothes, books, and personal effects. A marine was posted in the lobby of the ship day and night to protect the captain. Captain James Cook's cabin is the largest on board with replicas of his desk, books, charts, and uniform on display. All sheets (linen) and curtains (wool) are hand loomed and hand finished. James Cook and Joseph Banks shared the cabin, replicas of his cloak he traded in New Zealand, shaving gear, and collection of shells from the voyage are in this room.

The heating stove is replicated from the one recovered in the 1984 discovery of the HMS Pandora wreck sunk on the Great Barrier Reef while returning Bounty mutineers in 1791. Corner cupboards and serving table show replicated bottles and pewter. The wooden trunnel in the sternpost surrounded by a brass ring was carrid aboard the US Shutle Endeavour's maiden flight in 1992. Many gifts from the indigenous community are scattered throughout the Great Cabin including an Australian Aboriginal dalungda (nautilus shell) pendant, maori taiaha war staff, maori manaia of carved whale bone, australian aboriginal dithol, bunch of feathers, sooke indian paddle, french boomerang, South American seed, Australian Aboriginal boomerang and message stick.

FOR MORE INFORMATION, PHOTOS, AND HISTORY: Read the rest of this entry »

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