MATH Marine Anthropology Modules

Nov 19
The Posts on this page are the summaries for the courses developed by Marine Archaeologist Yvonne-Cher Skye while living aboard the Mary and Bill of Rights in Chula Vista, California, U.S.A.. It consists of 21 aspects of Marine Anthropology which can be taught in a seminar single-day format or over an 18-week semester. The supplemental materials will be available for purchase via paypal or credit card on her webpage located at the YGFI- Your Girl Friday International Website.  Links to individual modules and their introductions will be posted on this page, as well as on the Skye Research Page on YGFI's website. To gain a better understanding of the courses that are offered, please read the introduction page here. Follow the links to the other posts which will provide links to the specific page on the website to purchase that module.  At the present time, they are provided as an entire package, which includes:
  • Course Outline
  • Glossary
  • Module
  • Notes
  • References available
  • Websites
  • Summary of course to promote to students and the public
  • Handouts
  • Video list of related topics
As well as each document is available for single purchase. The purpose of these modules is to provide an unique educational opportunity which does not require formal educational training to conduct the course.  The idea of providing so many supplemental materials is to ensure satisfaction of the attendees of the course, as well as the boards or governing bodies of any organization that chooses to add these courses to their existing programs.  As stated in the introduction module this is only the skeleton of the courses, and it can stand alone as an introductory course, further more advanced courses will be developed in the future. Ms. Skye has also developed modules for Climatology, Marine Science, and soon to be announced. MATH 001 In the Beginning - Summary MATH 002 Fabled Lands - Summary MATH 003 Legendary Voyages - Summary MATH 004 Sea Quests, Famous Expeditions and Explorers - Summary MATH 005 Maritime History - Summary MATH 006 Nautical Custom - Summary MATH 007 Life at Sea - Summary MATH 008 Famous Captains - Summary MATH 009 Mutinies - Summary MATH 010 Big Ships - Summary MATH 011 Death and Disaster - Summary MATH 012 Navigable Waters - Summary MATH 013 Castaways and Survivors - Summary MATH 014 Criminals - Summary MATH 015 Myths - Summary MATH 016 Mysteries - Summary MATH 017 Monsters - Summary MATH 018 Wraiths of the Sea - Summary MATH 019 Superstitions and Beliefs - Summary MATH 020 Famous Ships - Summary MATH 021 Battles - Summary
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Ship’s Bell

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Life on the Sea, Parts of the Ship

The Ship's Bell:

The Ship's Bell was used as a timekeeper. It was usually made of bronze and often had the ship's name engraved on it. It was usually the job of the ship's cook or his staff to shine the bell daily. It was also used for foggy conditions to safely pass through areas. It was also rung when officers and dignitaries came aboard or left the ship. The ship's bell, was used to tell the time of day for all the crew and officer's to be guided by. The bell would be struck each half hour. Most crew would have a watch of four hours. A four hour watch was comprised of one to eight bell rings. One hour is indicated by two bell strikes struck close together.

  • 1 bell ~ 12:30 or 16:30
  • 2 bells ~ 13:00 or 17:00
  • 3 bells ~ 13:30 or 17:30
  • 4 bells ~ 10:00 or 14:00 or 18:00
  • 5 bells ~ 10:30 or 14:30
  • 6 bells ~ 11:00 or 15:00
  • 7 bells ~ 11:30 or 15:30
  • 8 bells ~ 12:00 or 16:00

Onboard the Upper or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour. Facing and directly in front of the bowsprit from the waist of the ship, lies the Ship's Bell.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Ship's Bell". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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windlass

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

WINDLASS:

The windlass is a horizontal winch, barrel, round timber, or machine used on ships to hoist or release heavy equipment on board. It is most notably used for the ship's anchor or a fishing trawl. On modern ships, these are mechanical and are usually called the "anchor windlass machine" which restrains and manipulates the anchor chain or rope on a boat, allowing for it to be hoisted or lowered. This has a notched wheel that engages the links of the chain or rope. A "trawl windlass" is a similar machine that operates the trawl or large net on fishing boats in like fashion. Each of these come with brakes to control the operation and for safety. Most today are electric or hydraulic motor operated by means of a gear train. The windlass and its mechanism is typically found above deck. Sometimes a "devil's claw" device was added to anchor chains as a turnbuckle, attached to the base of the anchor windlass, with a metal hook and two curved fingers to grab one link of a chain, as a chain stopper and to hold the anchor chain in place.

Aboard the Upper or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, is the giant windlass. On the Endeavour, it is located just before the bowsprit and bow. This was used to hoist and release the main anchors off of the catheads. This was operated by the crew's manual labor by use of the long wooden bars located just front of the waist of the ship. The modern Endeavour has a built in motor secretly hidden in their windlass. This was simply a large rotating barrel around which the cables were wound. It was fitted with removable bars the seaman could use to pull downwards on to rotate it. A braking system was installed to prevent crew members from slipping backwards.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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catheads

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

CATHEADS:

The Catheads are large timbers or wooden beams extending forward of the bow one on each side of the bowsprit angled usually roughly at 45 degrees. They are used to support the ship's anchor to hoist and release anchors by means of a windlass, turned mechanically in the modern era, or manually by crew labor in the olden days. On older 16th-18th century ships, the seats of ease were often put to the sides of the catheads. Sometimes the catheads are furnished with sheaves on the outer end, with the inner end (called the cat's tail) fits down on the cat beam. A stopper called the "cat stopper" fastens the anchor on the cathead. The size of the cathead is usually relevant to the weight of the anchor and to keep it away from the wooden side of the ship to prevent damage. In ships of old, these catheads were carved to resemble the faces of cats or lions. Its first name usage was sometime in the 17th century.

Onboard the Upper or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour are the two large and long black timbers which are catheads. These are used to raise and lower the anchors being pulled up using the windlass, a horizontal winch turned manually by the crew's manual labor by use of the long wooden bars located just front of the waist of the ship. Next to the catheads are the seats of ease used by the crew in the original days.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "catheads". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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Masts

Dec 30
Posted by leafworks Filed in Decks, Parts of the Ship

MASTS:

Masts belong to the outer deck of sailing ships. On taller sailing ships, they extend straight up vertically off the upper or main deck. A mast-like pole called the Extended off of the masts would be sails and rigging. On tall sailing ships, from the bow (front) to stern (back) are several tall masts. These are the bowsprit, foremast, mainmast, and mizzenmast. The bowsprit extends horizontally or angled upwards from the bow, and while it has some purposes similar to a mast, is different than most of the other masts. Masts can range in shapes and sizes, from vertical, horizontal, near vertical, spar, an arrangement of spars, or tall - all of which exist to support the sails. The larger the ship, generally the more the masts. Nearly all of the masts in tall ships are guyed masts. Pre-19th century, most masts were wooden formed from a single piece of timber typically a trunk of a conifer tree, especially from the 16th-18th century as being a single tall trunk of a tree. In ships after the 19th century, the foremast and mainmast are usually made from three pieces of timber on the large ships, while the mizzenmast are made from two pieces of lumber. To achieve the required heights, masts are built from up to four sections known in order of rising height above the decks as the lower, top, topgallant, and royal masts. Single pieces of timber masts are called "pole masts". By the 1930's, especially in yachts, aluminum masts were introduced on smaller crafts. They became advantageous on smaller vessels because they were lighter, slimmer, impervious to rot, and can be produced as a single extruded length. By World War II, they were common on all smaller yachts and dingies.

    MASTS:
  • Foremast: first mast, or mast fore of the main mast.
  • Main Mast: tallest mast, usually at ship center.
  • Mizzen Mast: Third mast, usually immediately aft of the main mast. Typically it is shorter than the foremast.
  • Jigger Mast: the shortest, the aft-most mast on vessels with more than three masts.

On the HMB Endeavour, the masts are made of laminated Douglas Fir. The Original HMS Endeavour's masts would have been either fir or spruce. The Endeavour had three masts, and was rigged carrying square sails on each mast.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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bowsprit

Dec 30
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

The Bowsprit or boltsprit aka "The Widowmaker"

Located on the Upper and Main deck of most 18th century sailing ships, The bowsprit is a pole or spar that extends off the "Bow" or front of a sailing ship. It provides the anchor point for the forestay which allows the foremast to be stepped farther forward on the hull. Earlier ships would tilt their bowsprit at a high angle off of which they'd hang 1-2 square spritsails from the yards. During the 17th and 18th centuries, a vertical sprit topmast would be added near it to add another square sail. On smaller ships, it is often horizontal as it is not used for stowing sails. On tall ships, the end of it is often painted white unless it has ventured into Antarctic or the Arctic where it is pointed as the "bluenose" as blue. The larger tall sailing ships would have bowsprits that are of considerable length with several forestays attached. Square and headsails would sometimes be tied off onto the bowsprit. They are angled upwards to prevent being buried under large waves. It is also nicknamed the "widowmaker" because of the dangerous work involved in maintaining the headsails during rough weather. They are sometimes found on hang gliders for spreading the wings.

The HMB and HMS Endeavour: the HMB Endeavour's bowsprit is made of laminated Douglas fir. The Original HMS would have also been fir or spruce.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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