MATH Marine Anthropology Modules

Nov 19
The Posts on this page are the summaries for the courses developed by Marine Archaeologist Yvonne-Cher Skye while living aboard the Mary and Bill of Rights in Chula Vista, California, U.S.A.. It consists of 21 aspects of Marine Anthropology which can be taught in a seminar single-day format or over an 18-week semester. The supplemental materials will be available for purchase via paypal or credit card on her webpage located at the YGFI- Your Girl Friday International Website.  Links to individual modules and their introductions will be posted on this page, as well as on the Skye Research Page on YGFI's website. To gain a better understanding of the courses that are offered, please read the introduction page here. Follow the links to the other posts which will provide links to the specific page on the website to purchase that module.  At the present time, they are provided as an entire package, which includes:
  • Course Outline
  • Glossary
  • Module
  • Notes
  • References available
  • Websites
  • Summary of course to promote to students and the public
  • Handouts
  • Video list of related topics
As well as each document is available for single purchase. The purpose of these modules is to provide an unique educational opportunity which does not require formal educational training to conduct the course.  The idea of providing so many supplemental materials is to ensure satisfaction of the attendees of the course, as well as the boards or governing bodies of any organization that chooses to add these courses to their existing programs.  As stated in the introduction module this is only the skeleton of the courses, and it can stand alone as an introductory course, further more advanced courses will be developed in the future. Ms. Skye has also developed modules for Climatology, Marine Science, and soon to be announced. MATH 001 In the Beginning - Summary MATH 002 Fabled Lands - Summary MATH 003 Legendary Voyages - Summary MATH 004 Sea Quests, Famous Expeditions and Explorers - Summary MATH 005 Maritime History - Summary MATH 006 Nautical Custom - Summary MATH 007 Life at Sea - Summary MATH 008 Famous Captains - Summary MATH 009 Mutinies - Summary MATH 010 Big Ships - Summary MATH 011 Death and Disaster - Summary MATH 012 Navigable Waters - Summary MATH 013 Castaways and Survivors - Summary MATH 014 Criminals - Summary MATH 015 Myths - Summary MATH 016 Mysteries - Summary MATH 017 Monsters - Summary MATH 018 Wraiths of the Sea - Summary MATH 019 Superstitions and Beliefs - Summary MATH 020 Famous Ships - Summary MATH 021 Battles - Summary

The HMS Endeavour

Dec 15
Posted by leafworks Filed in Expeditions, Ships

HMS Endeavour
* 1764 - 1778 * Royal Navy, Plymouth, Great Britain *

The HMS Endeavor, also known as the "HM Bark Endeavor", was built by Thomas Fishburn Whitby for the Royal Navy of England as a "Bark" type ship with over 368 tons burthen, a length of 106 feet, a beam of over 29 feet, as a full rigged ship designed for scientific research missions. It possesses over 3,321 square yards of sail. It has the ability to clock over 8 knots maxium (13-15 km/hour). She could house a crew of 94 which included 71 ship's company, 12 Royal Marines, 11 civilians, and armament. She was first launched in June of 1764 as the collier "Earl of Pembroke" for 2800 Pounds. Purchased by the Navy in March of 1768 and refitted at Deptford to be commissioned a few months later as "His Majesty's Bark the Endeavor" for a scientific mission to the Pacific exploring the seas for the legendary "Terra Australis Incognita" or "Unknown Great Southern Land" after the Royal Society lobbied King George III to accomplish the mission. The Royal Society originally wanted noted hydrographer Alexander Dalrymple to lead the expedition. The Admiralty would not let this be and appointed a relatively unknown Lieutenant James Cook to the mission. She was commanded by Lieutenant Captain James Cook who took her on a journey for the Western discovery of Australia and New Zealand from 1769 until 1771. Normally collier ships would not be used for such as quest, but it was believed at the time that these vessels were of the most sea-worthy and could carry a large cargo. She set sail from Plymouth in August 1768, rounding Cape Horn, onwards to Tahiti for arrival in June of 1769 to chart and observe the transit of Venus across the sun so scientists could measure the distance from the Earth to the Sun. She explored the South Seas and granted Cook the privilege to discover, chart, and claim for England the Pacific Islands of Huahine, Raiatea, and Borbora. Cook first sailed south and upon not encountering land went west. On October 6, 1769 he sighted the east coast of New Zealand at Poverty Bay. Cook and his crew circumnavigated New Zealand until March of 1770 creating the first complete charts of that country. In April of 1770 she became the first seagoing vessel to reach the East coast of Australia at Botany Bay. From there she sailed north along the coast, beaching on the Great Barrier Reef only later to beach n the mainland along the Endeavor River. She was the first to almost completely chart the entire east coast of Australia. Seven weeks of repairs and refitting, she was back to sail in October 1770 onwards to Batavia and back to England. She arrived in July that year. One of Cook's crew, Joseph Banks, had phenomenal reports of Botany Bay and the surrounding land that the British Government later sent Arthur Phillip and the first fleet to the area to establish the first European settlement in Australia. She was then used for the next three years shipping Navy stores to the Falkland Islands. She was officially de-commissioned in September 1774 and marked "Out of Service" in March 1775. She was sold into private hands in 1775 and used for naval service as a troop transport during the American Revolutionary War. The "HMS Endeavor" was renamed the "Lord Sandwich" in 1776. She had as least one commercial voyage to the Archangel in Russia. It became "scuttled" in 1778 in the Narragansett Bay outside of Newport, Rhode Island, North America where it sank to an unknown location and depth. Some relics from the wreck have been uncovered, including the cannons and anchor. A 1991 Rhode Island Marine Archaeology Project known as RIMAP researched the identity of ten transports sunk as part of the Narragansett Bay blockade and confirmed the Endeavor had been renamed "Lord Sandwich" and scuttled to sunk in the Bay. She has been replicaed as the HMB Endeavor, launched in 1994 and berthed at the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney, Australia. The replica has since done two circumnavigations of the World and is now embarking upon its 2011 circumnavigation of Australia.

The Ship:

The original ship's mast, bowsprit, and topsides were made of spruce or fir. The keel, lower hull, and ship frame was made of elm or oak. The original sails were of flax canvas. The Endeavor had six anchors with hour of these carried on the bow. The two largest was the bower anchors that weighed over a ton. The originals were lost in 1770 when the Endeavor beached on the Great Barrier Reef. These were raised and released from the catheads which are black timbers extending forward of the bow, one each side of the bowsprit and pulled up using the windlass. The windlass is a horizontal winch that is turned manually by the use of very long wooden bars. Next to the catheads are the seats of ease used by seaman. Since they didn't have toilet paper at the time, used rags or frayed cords of rope with water was used instead. The ships bell tells the time of day struck each half hour with a four hour watch comprised of one to eight bells. One hour is accomplished by striking two bells closely together. Down below, a state of the art (for 1768) "firehearth" was used to cook the meals. It was a huge iron stove that was fed wood for fuel. It sat on a stone hearth set on tin and sand that would protect the deck. The deck itself was believed to have been lined with tin. John Thompson, Cook's one handed cook and his mates would cook a hot breakfast and midday dinner for upwards of 94 crew members on each day for three years in length. The food was boiled in large coppers and liquid was run out via taps. The open fire in the back was for spit roasting and three-legged pots were used to stand in the embers. On the port side a small over was used to cook pies and fresh break to feed to the officers, gentlement, and the sick. After mid-day meal, the fires were extinguished and coppers cleaned with a small fire kept alight towards the back to heat water for the gentlemen, surgeon, and the captain. A typical day's meal would consist of a breakfast of hot porridge boiled with portable soup made of beef stock and scurvy grass at 6 am, then during midday dinner was served usually consisting of boiled salt meat, sauerkraut and vegetables as available. Three days a week, pease pudding, dried fish, or cheese was substituted instead of meat to make the rations last longer. One pound of dry biscuit and a gallon of beer were issued daily. During evening meal, cold leftovers were ate. Sometimes during winter a cup of hot chocolate made with water was offered and one a week boiled raisin pudding added. The cabins and workshops on either side of the kitchen were used by the carpenter, the bosun, and the sailmaker. Under the forecastle was the forepeak which is where the anchor cables and ropes would be stored.

Upwards of 60 sailors lived in these quarters for three years and six men would mess at each table sitting on seachests that held their belongings. The crew had very little choice in much of anything on the ship, but could choose who they messed with, and every month each table would elect a cook of the mess who took their rations to the ship's cook and then collected them and served the table, cleaning the bowls, utensils, and returned them to the mess shelves. Every man had to provide his own bowl, spoon, and mug upon which he inscribed his own mark. The aft table was set up for the marines who often messed together. On the hatch are an assortment of casks, containers, and sailmaker's tools. All crew would mend sails including the marines, a duty that no one could refuse.

The mess deck was added when the Endeavor was refitted from the collier to take Cook and his men to the Pacific. It was placed on the existing support beams in the collier giving a very high deck head in this area and a very low deck head aft. Hammocks were slung over the tables across the deck, sleeping 14 inches apart with them lashed and stowed every morning. The sick would sling their hammock above the mess tables during the day and was cared for by his mates. Officers and the gentlemen had swinging cots as a canvas hammock with a frame base of 18 inches. While at sea, the area would not have been very crowded as one group were always on watch while it was just the opposite when at anchor.

A red baize bag contained the cat o' nine tails and used to discipline unruly crew. Acing like a whip, this was the usual method of punishment in the Royal Navy as well as on Cook's watch consisting of 12 lashes for disobedience, mutinous talk, or being drunk on duty. Cook didn't use it very often. A log line and lead line were tools for measuring speed and depth. The area between the cabins was called the "mess" for the midshipmen and mates. It was here that 8 young men would sling their hammocks, store their personal effects, ate their meals, and relaxed when off duty. Items on the shelves and stern beam would be their effects. The surgeon's brother, a 17 year old Midshipman named Jonathan Munkhouse on Captain Cook's ship had a cabin on the mess. Six of the small cabins were used by officers who ate meals and relaxed in their mess on the deck above. These cabins would be littered with their work and personality. The Captain's clerk Richard Orton was Cook's record keeper and wasn't a very popular crew mate. His ears had been cut off during a drunken brawl in his cabin. Cook never found the culprit. Cook's Third Lieutenant was a 38 year old American colonist who previously had sailed around the world twice on the Dolphin. He was a very good officer and sportsman being the first European to shoot a kangaroo. In 1771 he was promoted to Second Lieutenant and became a very good friend to Joseph Banks travelling with him later to Iceland in 1772. He sailed with Cook during the third voyage and brought both ships home after Cook's death. The Master Robert Molyneux was one of Cook's navigators who also performed boat work and storage of supplies. At age 22 he died of dysentery during return travel. The 29 years old Lieutenant Zachary Hicks was second in command to Captain Cook. He unfortunately died of tuberculosis during the voyage. William Munkhouse was the surgeon for Cook and represented a very intelligent educated doctor who died with his brother on the return voyage. Stephen Forwood, one of Cook's Gunners took care of the guns and cannon. He was one of the few to be punished with the cat o' nine tails under Cook's authority for stealing rum but was allowed to join Cook during the second voyage. Marines on board would act as guards and policemen. They were easy to recognize with their bright red coats. They slung their hammocks port side with 4-6 inch headroom sleeping between the officers and the men to prevent mutiny. Cook sailed with 12 marines - one sergeant, a corporal, a drummer, and nine regulars. There were always 2 twenty-four hour sentry positions with one outside the captain's cabin and the other in front of the gunpowder store or magazine to prevent anyone entering with a flame. The young boys and servants would sling their hammocks on starboard while in training for seamanship. The Swedish botanist (student of Linnaeus), Dr. Daniel Solander was aboard identifying over 1,000 new species of plants while on the voyage. The astronomer Charles Green was on board as he was appointed by the Royal Society to observe the transit of Venus across the sun in June 1769. He was a keen observer at sea upon whom Cook relied upon greatly when coursing through the reef on Australia's east coast. The bedspread and curtains in his quarters were made by his wife and unfortunately he died during the return voyage of dysentery. A Swedish secretary was on board to assist the botanists, his name was Herman Sporing, and he also was a watch maker and had some medical training. He died of dysentery during the return trip. Two artists on board, Sydney Parkinson and Alexander Buchan, shared a cabin on he main floor recording what they saw throughout the journey. Unfortuantely Buchan died of epilepsy in Tahiti and Parkinson of dysentery after Batavia. Parkinson completed over 1,500 paintings and drawings during the expedition. The Captain James Cook, who died at age 40, had the largest cabin on the ship. He slept in a swinging cot that is lashed up during the day. Cook and Joseph Banks shared his cabin when Banks joined the crew. Joseph Banks was a world famous naturalist who published over 110 of his books. The Botanist, Dr. Solander would spent countless hours at his table checking the new plants collected ashore and classifying them using Linnaeus' book "Species Plantarum". Plants were drawn, dried, and archived.

Hatches would go below to the captain's store room, the bread room, the clothing or slop room, the fish room, and the purser's cabin. Stern openings are loading ports used to take in timbers and other items too long for the deck hatches. THe latticed pantries held the food/stock. The wheel/helm was manned by two sailers, one on each side, and is connected by ropes to the tiller run around the wooden drum and through a set of blocks. Poultry was stored in a hutch in front of the wheel and during storms it was not uncommon for birds to be lost during a storm. The Binnacle houses the compass, lanterns, and half-hour glass. The capstan is a vertical axis winch to hoist heavy spars, yards, and maneuver the ship at anchor.

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The HMB Endeavour

Dec 15
Posted by leafworks Filed in Expeditions, Life on the Sea, Projects, Ships

HMB Endeavour
* 1994 - Present * Australian Maritime Museum, Sydney, Australia * *

In honor of one of the world's greatest explorers, Captain James Cook, and his ship the HMS Endeavor, a replica was started in 1988 to commemorate the Australian Bicentenary of European Settlement in Australia by the Bond Corporation. Constructed in Fremantle, Western Australia, she was completed in 1993 and commissioned in 1994 as one of the world's most accurate maritime reproductions ever built. She took funding from various organizations, corporations, government, and private sources as well as labor and support from volunteers in the Fremantle community. She was operated by the HM Bark Endeavor Foundation until 2005. She was taken over by the Australian government through the Australian National Maritime Museum (ANMM) in 2005 to the present day. Her maiden voyage took place in October of 1994 sailing to Sydney Harbour and following Cook's path from Botany Bay to Cooktown. From 1996-2002 she retraced Cook's ports of call around the world arriving in Whitby in 2002. She has since circum-navigated the world twice with over 170,000 nautical miles on her clock, visiting over 29 countries, most of the Pacific Islands, a ship museum in 116 ports, and this year of 2011, has embarked upon its first ever circumnavigation of Australia replicating Captain Cook's original circling of Australia that is expected to take 13 months of sailing with a core professional crew and 40 adventurous voyage crew members learning the ropes of sailing a historic ship and what life was like in the 18th century onboard. The HMB will be docking at various ports every 5-12 days as it makes its way around Australia for visitors to embrace her glory and tour her presence in port of these particular cities as a floating museum. She will be docking in Brisbane (28 April – 8 May 2011), Gladstone (21 – 26 May), Townsville (10 – 14 June), Cairns (24 June – 5 July), Darwin (3 – 14 August), Geraldton (30 September – 4 October), Fremantle (14 October – 1 November), Bunbury (9 – 13 November), Fremantle (20 November – 30 December), Albany (14 – 18 January 2012), Port Lincoln (4 – 8 February), Adelaide (16 – 23 February), Portland (7 – 11 March), Hobart (24 March – 3 April), Melbourne (18 – 29 April), Eden (9 – 13 May) with brief visits to Thursday Island, North Qld (16 – 19 July 2011), Broome, WA (29 August – 1 September 2011) and Exmouth, WA (14 – 17 September 2011) to take on provisions and exchange voyage crew. Voyage crew members will sleep in hammocks and work hard climbing masts and hoisting sails. Four "supernumeraries" will have their own individual cabins and participate in the less arduous tasks on the ship. She has been completely refit for this 2011 voyage. The ship is beautifully crafted in replica-fashion giving the visitor a glimpse of a sailor's life during the epic 1768-1771 voyage that brought Captain Cook to the shores of Australia. The replica has over 30 kilometers of rope and over 50 wooden blocks and pulleys, masts and spars holding 28 sails that manifest over 10,000 square feet of canvas. Life will be demonstrated during the tours on deck, in the galley where one can view the great firehearth that was state of the art in 1768. One can look over Captain Cook's Great Cabin where he worked, dined, and shared quarters with the world famous botanist Joseph Banks. The replica is under the command of its regular master aptain Ross Mattson. While every advantage to power her by wind will be used in every respect as Cook's original vessel could, she also carries engines, generators, an electric galley, showers, and safety equipment hidden in the cargo hold where the historic provisions were originally kept. Her 2011 voyage can be viewed in a daily log/ blog beginning here:

The masts, bowsprit, deck, and topsides are all laminated Douglas fir on the HMB Endeavor. The Original ship, the HMS Endeavor, had spruce or fir as the main wood. The keel, lower hull, and frame of the ship is made from Western Australian hardwood jarrah while the HMS was of oak or elm. The HMB Endeavor's sails are made from a synthetic canvas called Duradon while the original was of flax canvas. Over 18 miles of rope is used in the rigging. The six anchors with four carried on the bow weighing just under a ton in weight were replicated from those found after being lost from the original Endeavor on the Great Barrier Reef in 1770. The anchors are raised by the catheads and winched up by the windlass, all of which are replicated from the specifics of the original ship. The seats of ease are also replicated that are located by the catheads. The HMB Endeavor strikes the ship's bell to tell the time of day - struck each half hour. A four hour watch is comprised of 1-8 bells with one hour indicated by two bells struck closely together. The firehearth down below has been replicated as a huge iron stove sitting on a stone hearth set on tin and sand to protect the deck in the best way possible to mimic the HMS Endeavor as a working model. It gained such attention in that it works and cooks 18th century type meals so well, it was featured in the BBC documentary "The Ship" filmed on board in 2001. Various 18th century replicas of kitchen and feasting items are on display. On the hatch are displayed various casks, containers, and sailmaker's tools. A piece of pig iron ballast from the original ship recovered from the Endeavor Reef in Queensland is lashed to the central pillar representing the only original item on board. Hammocks and swinging cots were replicated and used by the operational crew. Mattresses onboard are handmade following 1760 specifications stuffed with wool and cotton waste. The latticed pantries were used for food storage and the preparation areas where Captain Cook would make plans is now where the navigation equipment is stored. The cabin of Charles Green, the Royal Society appointed astronomer, contains a copy of his original hand-made paper journal he made observations in by quill. The replicated curtains and bedspread are an attempt to match that which his wife originally made for him. The cabin shared by the artists, Sydney Parkinson and Alexander Buchan contain copies of Parkinson's paintings, clothes, books, and personal effects. A marine was posted in the lobby of the ship day and night to protect the captain. Captain James Cook's cabin is the largest on board with replicas of his desk, books, charts, and uniform on display. All sheets (linen) and curtains (wool) are hand loomed and hand finished. James Cook and Joseph Banks shared the cabin, replicas of his cloak he traded in New Zealand, shaving gear, and collection of shells from the voyage are in this room.

The heating stove is replicated from the one recovered in the 1984 discovery of the HMS Pandora wreck sunk on the Great Barrier Reef while returning Bounty mutineers in 1791. Corner cupboards and serving table show replicated bottles and pewter. The wooden trunnel in the sternpost surrounded by a brass ring was carrid aboard the US Shutle Endeavour's maiden flight in 1992. Many gifts from the indigenous community are scattered throughout the Great Cabin including an Australian Aboriginal dalungda (nautilus shell) pendant, maori taiaha war staff, maori manaia of carved whale bone, australian aboriginal dithol, bunch of feathers, sooke indian paddle, french boomerang, South American seed, Australian Aboriginal boomerang and message stick.

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