MATH Marine Anthropology Modules

Nov 19
The Posts on this page are the summaries for the courses developed by Marine Archaeologist Yvonne-Cher Skye while living aboard the Mary and Bill of Rights in Chula Vista, California, U.S.A.. It consists of 21 aspects of Marine Anthropology which can be taught in a seminar single-day format or over an 18-week semester. The supplemental materials will be available for purchase via paypal or credit card on her webpage located at the YGFI- Your Girl Friday International Website.  Links to individual modules and their introductions will be posted on this page, as well as on the Skye Research Page on YGFI's website. To gain a better understanding of the courses that are offered, please read the introduction page here. Follow the links to the other posts which will provide links to the specific page on the website to purchase that module.  At the present time, they are provided as an entire package, which includes:
  • Course Outline
  • Glossary
  • Module
  • Notes
  • References available
  • Websites
  • Summary of course to promote to students and the public
  • Handouts
  • Video list of related topics
As well as each document is available for single purchase. The purpose of these modules is to provide an unique educational opportunity which does not require formal educational training to conduct the course.  The idea of providing so many supplemental materials is to ensure satisfaction of the attendees of the course, as well as the boards or governing bodies of any organization that chooses to add these courses to their existing programs.  As stated in the introduction module this is only the skeleton of the courses, and it can stand alone as an introductory course, further more advanced courses will be developed in the future. Ms. Skye has also developed modules for Climatology, Marine Science, and soon to be announced. MATH 001 In the Beginning - Summary MATH 002 Fabled Lands - Summary MATH 003 Legendary Voyages - Summary MATH 004 Sea Quests, Famous Expeditions and Explorers - Summary MATH 005 Maritime History - Summary MATH 006 Nautical Custom - Summary MATH 007 Life at Sea - Summary MATH 008 Famous Captains - Summary MATH 009 Mutinies - Summary MATH 010 Big Ships - Summary MATH 011 Death and Disaster - Summary MATH 012 Navigable Waters - Summary MATH 013 Castaways and Survivors - Summary MATH 014 Criminals - Summary MATH 015 Myths - Summary MATH 016 Mysteries - Summary MATH 017 Monsters - Summary MATH 018 Wraiths of the Sea - Summary MATH 019 Superstitions and Beliefs - Summary MATH 020 Famous Ships - Summary MATH 021 Battles - Summary
Share

Rigging

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

RIGGING:

Above the main deck, attaching the sails from the deck via the bowsprit and the masts is what is called "the rigging". Rigging is the apparatus through which the force of the wind is used to propel sailing vessels forward. This is standardly composed of the ropes and tackle that is used to support and work the masts and sails. It can also include the masts, yards, sails, and cordage. standard rigging is fixed and is composed of the stays and shrouds that holds the masts in place. The running rigging is the ropes and tackle that are used to move, hoist, and control the yards, spars, and sails. It controls the shape and position of the sails. 16th thru 18th century rope was made of hemp, but modern tall ship ropes are usually now made of manila or modern ropes including nylon. The term comes from the Anglo-Saxon "wrigan" or "wringing" meaning "to clothe". cordage is usually the ropes that are attached to the spars and sails, while the sails are the fabric used to catch the wind, and the spars are the masts the sails are attached to.

On the HMB Endeavour reproduction of the HMS Endeavour is over 18 miles (29 kilometers) of ropes and rigging. The Endeavour had three masts, and was rigged carrying square sails on each mast.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

Share

Sails

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

SAILS:

Sails are any type of surface that are used to propel a vessel using the wind. They are most commonly used in sailing ships, but have been used for rotors and vehicles. Above the Upper or Main deck would be the sails extending off their supports called the masts as well as off the front of the bow in tall sailing ships along the bowsprit. Modern tall sailing ships, such as the HMB Endeavour sails are made of synthetic canvas called Duradon which has the same feel and appearance that the original flax canvas ones that would have been found on the HMS Endeavour. The sails would be raised, set, secured, guided, and loosened by means of the riggings. (On the HMB Endeavour there is over 18 miles of rope rigging) The earliest sails were found to have dated from 3200 BCE in Ancient Egypt most likely used in reed boats sailing upstream against the Nile's current. Other sails have been found used by the Ancient Sumerians at the same time.

There are various types of sails. square sails are even mounted to boat's hulls to aid in downwind sailing, common from the Mediterranean, China, Ecuador, and throughout Europe. Aft and Fore sails, as well as the spritsail, gaff rig, jib, staysail, genoa, and Bermuda rig were created by the Europeans and had heavy use from the 16th-19th centuries. Early sails were made of cotton fabric or canvas, while modern swails are made with modern non-stretch fabrics such as Duradon, Nylon, Aramid, Kevlar, Carbon Fibre, HMPE, Zylon, Vectran, or Dacron and usually broadseamed. The ships are propelled by sails in one of two ways - when the boat is going in the direction of the wind, the sails are aligned to trap the air as it flows by a driving force called "drag". The other method, is when the sails propel the boat while it is travelling across or into the wind. In this way the sails act as airfoils propelling the ship by redirecting the wind coming in from the side towards the rear of the ship by means of "drag" and "lift". Lower edge of a triangular sail is called the "foot", while the upper point is called the "head". Lower two points of the sail on either side of the foot are called the "tack" (forward) and the "clew" (aft). Forward edge of the sail is called the "luff", and the aft edge of a sail is called the "leech". "Main sails" are the main element of the sail plan acting like the "motor" or "rudder" for the boat. They can be as simple as the triangular shaped cross-cut sail. "Head sails" are the main driving mechanism when going upwind (towards the wind). The most common of these are the Genoa or Jib. "Spinnakers" are used for reaching and running downwind sailing and are light with a balloon-like shape. Earlier 16th-18th century tall sailing ships could obtain an average of 3 knots while modern ships can get well over 10 knots.

Sails are three-dimensional curved surfaces when raised in the wind creating an airfoil. To create sails to make this "curved" airfoil surface, they need to be designed by a number of panels cut and sew together to create the foil. Many of the earlier sails were made traditionally as parallel panels (cross cut) which evolved into more complex radial designs with differently shaped panels. A professional person who manufactures sails is called a "sailmaker".

In tall sailing ships, the main sails are:

  • Bowsprit: the spritsail, sprit topsail, the fore topmast staysail, and the jib.
  • The foremast: has the fore course, fore topsail, fore topgallant.
  • Between the foremast and mainmast: The main staysail, main topmast staysail, main topgallant staysail.
  • Mainmast: main course, main topsail, main topgallant.
  • Between the mainmast and mizzenmast: the mizzen staysail, mizzen topmast staysail.
  • Mizzenmast: mizzen course, mizzen topsail.
  • Studding sails: are additional sails that can be set alongside the square sails in light airs.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

Share

Masts

Dec 30
Posted by leafworks Filed in Decks, Parts of the Ship

MASTS:

Masts belong to the outer deck of sailing ships. On taller sailing ships, they extend straight up vertically off the upper or main deck. A mast-like pole called the Extended off of the masts would be sails and rigging. On tall sailing ships, from the bow (front) to stern (back) are several tall masts. These are the bowsprit, foremast, mainmast, and mizzenmast. The bowsprit extends horizontally or angled upwards from the bow, and while it has some purposes similar to a mast, is different than most of the other masts. Masts can range in shapes and sizes, from vertical, horizontal, near vertical, spar, an arrangement of spars, or tall - all of which exist to support the sails. The larger the ship, generally the more the masts. Nearly all of the masts in tall ships are guyed masts. Pre-19th century, most masts were wooden formed from a single piece of timber typically a trunk of a conifer tree, especially from the 16th-18th century as being a single tall trunk of a tree. In ships after the 19th century, the foremast and mainmast are usually made from three pieces of timber on the large ships, while the mizzenmast are made from two pieces of lumber. To achieve the required heights, masts are built from up to four sections known in order of rising height above the decks as the lower, top, topgallant, and royal masts. Single pieces of timber masts are called "pole masts". By the 1930's, especially in yachts, aluminum masts were introduced on smaller crafts. They became advantageous on smaller vessels because they were lighter, slimmer, impervious to rot, and can be produced as a single extruded length. By World War II, they were common on all smaller yachts and dingies.

    MASTS:
  • Foremast: first mast, or mast fore of the main mast.
  • Main Mast: tallest mast, usually at ship center.
  • Mizzen Mast: Third mast, usually immediately aft of the main mast. Typically it is shorter than the foremast.
  • Jigger Mast: the shortest, the aft-most mast on vessels with more than three masts.

On the HMB Endeavour, the masts are made of laminated Douglas Fir. The Original HMS Endeavour's masts would have been either fir or spruce. The Endeavour had three masts, and was rigged carrying square sails on each mast.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

Share

bowsprit

Dec 30
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

The Bowsprit or boltsprit aka "The Widowmaker"

Located on the Upper and Main deck of most 18th century sailing ships, The bowsprit is a pole or spar that extends off the "Bow" or front of a sailing ship. It provides the anchor point for the forestay which allows the foremast to be stepped farther forward on the hull. Earlier ships would tilt their bowsprit at a high angle off of which they'd hang 1-2 square spritsails from the yards. During the 17th and 18th centuries, a vertical sprit topmast would be added near it to add another square sail. On smaller ships, it is often horizontal as it is not used for stowing sails. On tall ships, the end of it is often painted white unless it has ventured into Antarctic or the Arctic where it is pointed as the "bluenose" as blue. The larger tall sailing ships would have bowsprits that are of considerable length with several forestays attached. Square and headsails would sometimes be tied off onto the bowsprit. They are angled upwards to prevent being buried under large waves. It is also nicknamed the "widowmaker" because of the dangerous work involved in maintaining the headsails during rough weather. They are sometimes found on hang gliders for spreading the wings.

The HMB and HMS Endeavour: the HMB Endeavour's bowsprit is made of laminated Douglas fir. The Original HMS would have also been fir or spruce.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Joseph Banks", "Solander". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

Share