MATH Marine Anthropology Modules

Nov 19
The Posts on this page are the summaries for the courses developed by Marine Archaeologist Yvonne-Cher Skye while living aboard the Mary and Bill of Rights in Chula Vista, California, U.S.A.. It consists of 21 aspects of Marine Anthropology which can be taught in a seminar single-day format or over an 18-week semester. The supplemental materials will be available for purchase via paypal or credit card on her webpage located at the YGFI- Your Girl Friday International Website.  Links to individual modules and their introductions will be posted on this page, as well as on the Skye Research Page on YGFI's website. To gain a better understanding of the courses that are offered, please read the introduction page here. Follow the links to the other posts which will provide links to the specific page on the website to purchase that module.  At the present time, they are provided as an entire package, which includes:
  • Course Outline
  • Glossary
  • Module
  • Notes
  • References available
  • Websites
  • Summary of course to promote to students and the public
  • Handouts
  • Video list of related topics
As well as each document is available for single purchase. The purpose of these modules is to provide an unique educational opportunity which does not require formal educational training to conduct the course.  The idea of providing so many supplemental materials is to ensure satisfaction of the attendees of the course, as well as the boards or governing bodies of any organization that chooses to add these courses to their existing programs.  As stated in the introduction module this is only the skeleton of the courses, and it can stand alone as an introductory course, further more advanced courses will be developed in the future. Ms. Skye has also developed modules for Climatology, Marine Science, and soon to be announced. MATH 001 In the Beginning - Summary MATH 002 Fabled Lands - Summary MATH 003 Legendary Voyages - Summary MATH 004 Sea Quests, Famous Expeditions and Explorers - Summary MATH 005 Maritime History - Summary MATH 006 Nautical Custom - Summary MATH 007 Life at Sea - Summary MATH 008 Famous Captains - Summary MATH 009 Mutinies - Summary MATH 010 Big Ships - Summary MATH 011 Death and Disaster - Summary MATH 012 Navigable Waters - Summary MATH 013 Castaways and Survivors - Summary MATH 014 Criminals - Summary MATH 015 Myths - Summary MATH 016 Mysteries - Summary MATH 017 Monsters - Summary MATH 018 Wraiths of the Sea - Summary MATH 019 Superstitions and Beliefs - Summary MATH 020 Famous Ships - Summary MATH 021 Battles - Summary
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Cork Harbour

Dec 26
Posted by leafworks Filed in Ports

113013-291

Cork Harbour
* www.corkharbour.ie * Cork, Ireland (Eire) *

Spectacular views of Cork harbour abound from atop Curraghbinny Hill overlooking the waters. It is one of the world's finest natural harbour's with many river estuaries feeding it. The Rivers Douglas, Owenacurra, and Lee drain within and allow some portage for ships to communities along their banks to the harbour. The Harbour itself is a Special Protected Area because of the avian species that inhabit its banks. More historically, it is known for being the last port of call for the "The Titanic". It is also home to three military installations: the historic jail site "Spike Island", Fort Carlisle, and Fort Camden. The oldest yacht club in the world, known as the RCYC, as "The Water Club of the Harbour of Cork" was founded in 1720 C.E. The Irish Maritime and Energy Resource Cluster (IMERC) that studies ocean energy operates from the harbour, and along its banks are located eight out of the ten world's largest pharmaceutical companies.

A natural harbour and river estuary at the mouth of the River Lee. Based on its navigation area, it is the second largest natural harbour in the world ... the first being Port Jackson in Sydney, Australia. Cork City, the largest city at its bank, is slightly upstream on the River Lee from the Harbour while its suburbs of Black Rock, Mahon, Passage West, Rochester, and Douglas are much closer to the harbour. Smaller towns around the lower harbour area are Monkstown, Ringaskiddy, Ballinacurra, Midleton, Passage West, Crosshaven, Raffeen, Great Island, Whitegate, Aghada, and Cobh. There are numerous islands in the harbour such as Harper Island, Hop Island, Haulbowline Island, Great island, Fota Island, Little Island, Spike Island, Rocky Island, Brown Island, Weir Island, Brick Island, Corkbeg Island, and Hop Island. Cork Harbour had a number of fortifications (such as Fort Charles) built around it during the 17th century C.E. to protect essentially Cork City. Haulbowline installed fortifications during the 18th century in order to protect anchorage in Cobh. When America was gaining its independence, Cork Harbour built forts at Fort Carlisle and Fort Camden. The harbour didn't have too much military importance until the Napoleonic Wars took place one naval headquarters were transferred here becoming an important anchorage to guard the English Channel and maintain blockades of France. Fortifications continued to be developed thru the 19th century. Fort Templebreedy was built just to the south of Fort Camden beginning of the 20th century. Once Irish Independence was won, Cork Harbour was included with Lough Swilly and Berehaven in a list of Naval British sites that would remain under control of the Royal Navy even though the Haulbowline Island naval dockyard was given to the Irish in 1923. With Irish Independence however, controlling and maintaining the Cork harbour became a difficult operation. It became a low Priority and disadvantage to keep for the English, so in 1938 the British Government handed them over to Ireland unconditionally. At this point, Ireland ceased using most of the military installations for military purposes as there was no need for them. Fort Carlisle was renamed Fort Davis and used by the Defence Forces for FIBUA training. Fort Camden was renamed Fort Meagher and is currently being renovated by local volunteers and enthusiasts as a tourist attraction. Fort Westmoreland was renamed Fort Mitchell Spike Island Prison and is also being used as a tourist attraction. Haulbowline Island's fortifications are now the headquarters of the Irish Naval Service.

Today the Harbour is one of the most important industrial areas located in Ireland where shipbuilding, steel-making, and fertilizer manufacture took place even though today they are on the down-climb and replaced by the pharmaceutical industry. Here firms like Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, Janssen Pharmaceutica, and others are conducting major business. They however too have been affected by the economic crisis and the 100+ pharmaceutical companies in the area have been affected during recent years. Transport through the harbour include import and export of oil, livestock, dairy, pharmaceuticals, grain, ore, cars, and other merchandise. It is also a major tourist port with numerous cruise ships and ferries coming to port here.

113013-311

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The Jeanie Johnson

May 2
Posted by leafworks Filed in Life on the Sea, Relief, Ships

Jeanie Johnston
Dublin, Ireland

One of Ireland's most famous ships is the Jeanie Johnston which is moored off the Custom House Quay in Dublin along the River Liffey. It is a replica of the three masted barque that was originally built in 1847 by Scotsman John Munn in Quebec, Canada. The original ship was bought by the Tralee merchants John Donovan and Sons from Kerry County as a cargo vessel that traded between Tralee and North America for many years bringing emigrants from Ireland to North America and timber back to Europe. Her first maiden emigrant voyage went from Blennerville in Kerry to Quebec in 1848 with 193 emigrants on board due to the Potato Famine that ravaged Ireland. From 1848 until 1855 she made 16 voyages to Quebec, Baltimore, and New York. On average the trip was accomplished in 47 days and her largest number of passengers were 254. No crews or passengers were ever lost on board thanks to the captain James Attridge who would not overload the ship and made sure doctor Richard Blennerhassett was on board for every journey. In 1855 the ship was sold to William Johnson of North Shields in England, but during a 1858 trip to Quebec from Hull carrying timber became waterlogged and slowly sank - crew was rescued by the Dutch ship Sophie Elizabeth. This replica ship, is reduced in size by 30%, and is only licensed to carry 40 people. The replica was made from indepth research of the original, and took from 1993-2002 to build. It was constructed by a international team of young people who linked Ireland North and South, the U.S., Canada, and other countries costing approximately 16 million Euro (4 times the original estimate of 3.81 million Euro) which was paid for by the Irish government, Kerry County Council, Tralee Town Council, the European Union, the American Ireland Fund, Bord Failte, Shannon Development, Kerry Group, the Training and Employment Authority Foras Áiseanna Saothair and the Irish Department of the Marine, most of which later agreed to write off their losses. It was built with larch planks on oak frames and was altered to apply with current international maritime regulations by adding some modern concessions including two Caterpillar main engines, two Caterpillar generators, and an emergency generator that is located above the waterline in the forward deckhouse fully compliant to the highest standards of modern ocean-going passenger ships, with steel water-tight bulkheads, down-flooding valves, and fire-fighting equipment. The replica shiped sailed in 2003 from Tralee to Canada and to the U.S. She raced in the 2005 tall ships race and finished 60th out of 65 from Waterford to Cherbourg. The replica is owned by the Dublin Docklands Development Authority who bought it in 2005 for 2.7 million Euro. Today it is not in seagoing condition. Today she is primarily used as an Onboard Museum and evening venue.

Jeannie Johnson Tall Sailing Ship & Museum

Jeannie Johnson Tall Sailing Ship & Museum

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A new Rainbow Warrior sets sail

Apr 9
Posted by leafworks Filed in Cultural Issues, Life on the Sea, Projects, Ships
Feature story - October 14, 2011
The Earth has a new champion. In Bremerhaven, Germany, we’ve held the naming ceremony for the world’s first purpose-built, crowd-bought, eco-sleek sailing vessel, the new Rainbow Warrior.
 
The new Rainbow Warrior during sea trials.
If you’re one of the 100,000 donors who bought a bolt, an action boat, an anchor, a chart, a soap dish, a piece of her sail or the whole of her wheelhouse, thank you and obrigado. If you’re one of our 3 million regular annual donors, merci bien and Xie Xie! If you’re one of our 17 million email or mobile subscribers, Facebook fans or Twitter followers, gracias and shukran.  If you’re one of our 14,000 volunteers, danke schön and kinanâskomitinawaw. We said the Earth needed a new warrior, and each of you answered that call: today we smash a bottle of champagne across the bow, and launch the world’s first ship built from the keel up to win the battle for the future of the Earth. wo A-frame masts exclaim that this is no ordinary sailing ship: it is a sleek, efficient eco-vessel, every detail crafted with sustainability in mind, from the hard coating on her hull which is 100% free of biocides to the FSC® wood of her cabins, to the onboard recycling systems and biological sewage treatment. The new Rainbow Warrior will primarily be powered and propelled by the sun and wind , with the option in unsuitable weather to switch to efficient diesel-electric power. The revolutionary mast design allows her to carry more sail, and makes room for the radio masts, antennas, and domes that provide internet and satellite communications -- allowing us to broadcast video from remote locations and tweet from any ocean. She boasts a video editing suite, a conference room, a campaign office, two fast action boats, webcams fore and aft and a helicopter hanger and helideck. She can accommodate up to 30 people.  
Melina Laboucan-Massimo is from the Cree First Nation from Northern Alberta, Canada. She is the Godmother of the ship. The Rainbow Warrior prophecy (that the ship is named after) comes from Indigenous nations in North American, like the Cree.
  The first ship to bear her name was a rusting fishing trawler scraped and sanded down by hand and painted with a dove and rainbow. She made history saving whales, stopping radioactive waste dumping, and sailing straight into the forbidden zone around nuclear weapons tests from the Pacific to the Arctic. Her voyage into history was cut short by two limpet mines in 1985, when frightened politicians in Paris ordered French agents to sink the ship in New Zealand, believing this would stop our protests against nuclear weapons tests. One crewmember was murdered in the attack – photographer Fernando Pereira. It was a massive miscalculation, catalyzing opposition throughout the Pacific, strengthening Greenpeace, and hardening our resolve to rebuild and return. A supporter in Auckland coined the phrase that became a motto of opposition: “You Can’t Sink a Rainbow.”  When we returned to Moruroa in a refurbished sister ship, the legacy of the Rainbow Warrior as a parable of persistence was sealed. Today the Rainbow Warrior II is doing relief work in India as a hospital ship. As a purpose-built campaigning ship, the new Warrior will be a voice for our oceans, our forests, our climate, and our future. Built to last for at least 50 years, she is a promise to you, our supporters, to never give in, never give up. Kumi Naidoo, Greenpeace International Executive Director, said at the ceremony: “The new Rainbow Warrior is the perfect ship with which navigate the perfect storm of ecological, economic and democratic crises lashing our world.” “Carrying an international crew, the Rainbow Warrior will confront environmental criminals across the world, she will investigate and expose destructive activities, but perhaps most of all will provide a beacon of hope and an inspiration to action wherever she goes. “If you’ve not yet been a part of the journey of building the Rainbow Warrior, please come onboard and be part of her voyage. The world needs another warrior: you.” >> Find out more about the Rainbow Warrior I and Rainbow Warrior II.
Catch our web video series "Stories from the Rainbow Warrior" and see the maiden voyage through the eyes of our newest activists, the New Hands on Deck: www.facebook.com/newhandsondeck It's our way of saying "Thank you" and to show off what 100,000+ of you bought when you funded the ship bolt by bolt, cleat by cleat, and sail by sail.

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High-powered cannon sinks tsunami ‘ghost ship’

Apr 7
Posted by leafworks Filed in Cultural Issues, Defense, Life on the Sea
Cross-posted via Word Press "Press This" from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-17635726 
6 April 2012 Last updated at 04:31 GMTHelp
The US Coast Guard has used cannon to sink a crewless Japanese ship that drifted to Alaska after the 2011 tsunami. Petty Officer David Mosley said that the weapon was used to puncture holes in the vessel to take on water. The boat had no lights or power and was viewed as a danger to other ships.
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Chinese freighter hijacked by pirates off Iran: Xinhua

Apr 7
Posted by leafworks Filed in Cultural Issues, Defense, Life on the Sea
ReutersReuters – 9 hrs ago

BEIJING (Reuters) - A Chinese freighter has been hijacked by pirates off southern Iran, the Chinese Embassy in Tehran reported on Friday.

The cargo ship, the "Xianghuamen," belongs to Nanjing Ocean Shipping Co Ltd in Nanjing, eastern China, the embassy said in a posting on its website.

The ship was commandeered Friday morning in the Gulf of Oman near the south Iranian port of Chabahar, the embassy said. The embassy is in touch with Iranian authorities and has asked the government to take all necessary steps to recover the vessel and its crew safely, according to the statement.

There were no other details, including the number of pirates or crew members.

An official with Nanjing Ocean Shipping contacted by telephone confirmed the hijacking, but would not provide further information.

(Reporting by Terril Yue Jones; Editing by Kim Coghill)

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cannons

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Defense, Parts of the Ship

CANNONS, SHIP:

Cannons are large pieces of artillery that uses projectiles and gunpowder. They can vary is size, range, caliber, mobility, rate/angle/type of fire, and firepower. Those on ships are usually a bit smaller than those used on land. The first use by Europeans was probably in Iberia in the 13th century. They have become very popular equipment aboard merchant, pirate, and military vessels during expeditions from the 16th-18th century.

Aboard the Upper Deck or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour are numerous cannons and swivel guns used to defend the ship from hostiles by firing small to large shots. The swivel guns could be moved to the longboat and mounted there when the crew went ashore. The HMS had 12, the HMB replica only has 10. As per cannons, there would be four-pounder cannons or guns that would fire 4 pound cannon balls for defense. The original HMS had 10, but six were thrown overboard when it ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef to help lighten the ship. These were recovered in the 1970's discovery of them and are what the HMB's cannons are based after. The HMB still ofter fire them when arriving or departing ports, using traditional black powder. They are also decorated with King George II crown and cipher weights, broad arrow and other markings.

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "cannons". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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swivel guns

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Defense, Parts of the Ship

SWIVEL GUNS:

Along the sides of tall sailing ships were often found small cannons called "swivel guns". These were very popular from the 16th-18th centuries of sailing history. They were mounted on a small swiveling stand or fork which allowed for a wide arc of movement. These are often also detachable and can move from the host main ship to the long boat. They typically measure around 3 feet in length (1 meter) with a bore diameter of 1 1/4 inch (3.5 cm). They would be used to shoot a wide variety of ammo, but atypically would fire grapeshot or small diameter shot such as small caliber round shot. Most of these guns are muzzle loaded. Breech loaded guns had a breech shaped like a beer mug, where the shooter would take the handle and insert into the body of the gun with the breech's opening facing forwards. Gunpowder, then projectiles were loaded into the breech, then aimed and fired. Very common on sailing ships as short-range anti-personnel ordinances rather than causing damage to opposing ships. Some swivel guns have been used to fire harpoons during whaling expeditions. The very first swivel gun known was from China in 1520. By 1560's, the swivel gun was introduced to Europe and Korea.

Aboard the Upper or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, along the sides of the ship are swivel guns used to defend the ship from hostiles by firing small shots. These could be moved to the longboat and mounted there when the crew went ashore. The HMS had 12, the HMB replica only has 10. In addition to the swivel guns, there would be four-pounder cannons or guns that would fire 4 pound cannon balls for defense. The original HMS had 10, but six were thrown overboard when it ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef to help lighten the ship. These were recovered in the 1970's discovery of them and are what the HMB's cannons are based after. The HMB still ofter fire them when arriving or departing ports, using traditional black powder. They are also decorated with King George II crown and cipher weights, broad arrow and other markings.

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "swivel guns". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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binnacle

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

THE BINNACLE:

The binnacle, usually near the steering wheel, is a shelf/cabinet used to hold the compass, lanterns, and half-hour glass. It is also usually a waist high case or stand on the deck of the ship, mounted in front of the captain or helmsman, upon or within which navigational instruments are placed for quick and easy reference. Early binnacles were made of timber and nails, but were found later to have caused magnetic deviations in compass readings. This was fixed by John Gray of Liverpool in 1854 by incorporating adjustable correcting magnets on screws or rack and pinions.

Aboard the Quarter Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, near the steering Wheel is the binnacle. This would also have been located near the hutch on the original HMS that would have been where the poultry would have been kept in front of the wheel.

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.


The Wheel or Helm, & capstan, HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "binnacle". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

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hutch

Dec 31
Posted by leafworks Filed in Parts of the Ship

THE HUTCH:

What is referred to as the Ship's Hutch was nothing more than a cabinet with a set of shelves, drawers, or a larger cabinet where poultry was kept on board.

Aboard the Quarter Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, near the steering Wheel or helm is the "hutch". There would have been a hutch on the original HMS that would have been where the poultry would have been kept in front of the wheel.

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "hutch". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

Share